Apolipoprotein E: risk factor for Alzheimer disease.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905.
The American Journal of Human Genetics (Impact Factor: 10.99). 05/1994; 54(4):643-9.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) has three common alleles (epsilon 2, epsilon 3, and epsilon 4) that determine six genotypes in the general population. In this study, we examined 77 patients with late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD), along with an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls, for an association with the APOE-epsilon 4 allele. We show that the frequency of this allele among AD patients was significantly higher than that among the control population (.351 vs. .130, P = .000006). The genotype frequencies also differed between the two groups (P = .0002), with the APOE-epsilon 4/epsilon 3 genotype being the most common in the AD group and the APOE-epsilon 3/epsilon 3 being the most common in the control group. In the AD group, homozygosity for epsilon 4 was found in nine individuals, whereas none was found in the control group. The odds ratio for AD, when associated with one or two epsilon 4 alleles, was 4.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-12.3), while the odds ratio for AD, when associated with heterozygosity for APOE-epsilon 4, was 3.6 (95% CI 1.5-9.8). Finally, the median age at onset among the AD patients decreased from 83 to 78 to 74 years as the number of APOE-epsilon 4 alleles increased from 0 to 1 to 2, respectively (test for trend, P = .001). Our data, which are in agreement with recent reports, suggest that the APOE-epsilon 4 allele is associated with AD and that this allelic variant may be an important risk factor for susceptibility to AD in the general population.

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    Experimental and Molecular Medicine 09/1997; 29(3):161-164. DOI:10.1038/emm.1997.24 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inheritance of the apolipoprotein E genotype ε4 (APOE4) is a powerful risk factor for most cases of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the effects of ApoE4 on the long-term synaptic plasticity and its underlying mechanism have not clearly investigated. In the present study, we examined the effects of ApoE4 on the hippocampal late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) and investigated its probable molecular mechanisms by using in vivo field potential recording, immunohistochemistry, and western blotting. The results showed that: (1) intra-hippocampal injection of 0.2 μg ApoE4, but not ApoE2, before high frequency stimulations (HFSs) attenuated the induction of hippocampal L-LTP in the CA1 region, while injection of the same concentration of ApoE4 after HFSs, even at a higher concentration (2 μg), did not affect the long term synaptic plasticity; (2) ApoE4 injection did not affect the paired pulse facilitation in the hippocampal CA1 region; (3) ApoE4 injection before, not after, HFSs significantly decreased the levels of phosphorylated Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (p-CaMKIIα) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB) in the hippocampus. These results demonstrated for the first time that ApoE4 could impair hippocampal L-LTP by reducing p-CaMKIIα and p-CREB, suggesting that the ApoE4-induced suppression of hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity may contribute to the cognitive impairments in genetic AD; and both CaMKIIα and CREB are important intracellular targets of the neurotoxic ApoE4.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 04/2014; 41(4). DOI:10.3233/JAD-140375 · 3.61 Impact Factor

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