[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To review studies investigating the following: whether exposing developing infants to antipsychotic medication during pregnancy and lactation is associated with increased risks of teratogenic, neonatal, and long-term neurobehavioural sequelae; whether schizophrenia itself affects pregnancy outcome; and whether the course of schizophrenia symptoms is altered by pregnancy and lactation.
We summarize the results from articles identified via a MedLine search for the period January 1, 1966, to December 1, 2001.
Women with schizophrenia are at increased risk for poor obstetrical outcomes, including preterm delivery, low birth weight, and neonates who are small for their gestational age. A lack of information in the literature makes it difficult to comment on the relative risk of exposing developing infants to atypical antipsychotics. However, typical antipsychotics appear to carry an increased risk of congenital malformations when the fetus is exposed to phenothiazines during weeks 4 to 10 of gestation. Lack of information also precludes an understanding of whether changes associated with pregnancy and lactation significantly alter the course of schizophrenia symptoms.
Research is needed so that physicians may more accurately inform women about the relative risks of using antipsychotic medications during pregnancy and lactation. Increased knowledge about the risks of medication exposure will allow clinicians to limit treatment to situations in which the risk of untreated maternal illness outweighs the risk of exposing a developing infant to medications.
Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie 01/2003; 47(10):959-65. · 2.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both first- (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are routinely used in treating severe and persistent psychiatric disorders. However, until now no articles have analyzed systematically the safety of both classes of psychotropics during pregnancy. DATA SOURCES AND SEARCH STRATEGY: Medical literature information published in any language since 1950 was identified using MEDLINE/PubMed, TOXNET, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library. Additional references were identified from the reference lists of published articles. Bibliographical information, including contributory unpublished data, was also requested from companies developing drugs. Search terms were pregnancy, psychotropic drugs, (a)typical-first-second-generation antipsychotics, and neuroleptics. A separate search was also conducted to complete the safety profile of each reviewed medication. Searches were last updated on July 2008.
All articles reporting primary data on the outcome of pregnancies exposed to antipsychotics were acquired, without methodological limitations.
Reviewed information was too limited to draw definite conclusions on structural teratogenicity of FGAs and SGAs. Both classes of drugs seem to be associated with an increased risk of neonatal complications. However, most SGAs appear to increase risk of gestational metabolic complications and babies large for gestational age and with mean birth weight significantly heavier as compared with those exposed to FGAs. These risks have been reported rarely with FGAs. Hence, the choice of the less harmful option in pregnancy should be limited to FGAs in drug-naive patients. When pregnancy occurs during antipsychotic treatment, the choice to continue the previous therapy should be preferred.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schizophrenic women can now complete a pregnancy successfully, mostly due to psychiatric stabilization obtained with neuroleptic treatment. Side effects of classic neuroleptics are largely described in adults. On the other hand, effects of atypical neuroleptics, which are indicated when there is chronic severe schizophrenia with resistance or major intolerance to classic neuroleptics, are little known in newborn infants. We report the case of a hypertrophic full-term newborn whose mother received clozapine treatment alone with decreasing posology during the course of pregnancy. On his 2nd day of life, this newborn infant presented delayed peristalsis that required hospitalization in the digestive surgery department for more than 2 weeks. We assume that the anti-cholinergic effect of this molecule associated with a substantial plasmatic concentration and a possible increased half-life elimination were involved. Neonatal delayed peristalsis associated with clozapine treatment alone during pregnancy is poorly described in the medical literature. We only found one report on plasmatic concentrations of clozapine and its metabolite in a newborn, published in 1994. Close digestive monitoring is needed in the first days of life after in-utero exposure to clozapine and we believe that the question of a delayed initiation of enteral feeding after meconium elimination and in the absence of abdominal distension is debatable.
Archives de Pédiatrie 08/2012; 19(9):913-6. · 0.36 Impact Factor
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