Sperm morphology and recurrent abortion.

Recurrent Miscarriage Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115.
Fertility and Sterility (Impact Factor: 4.17). 05/1994; 61(4):776-8.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In 98 men whose partners experienced three or more spontaneous abortions, there were no significant differences in ejaculate volume, concentration of sperm, the percentage of total abnormal sperm, or the percentage of individual sperm defects as compared with normal WHO standards and 17 men fathering successful pregnancies. These data indicate that neither abnormal sperm concentration nor abnormal sperm morphology are significantly associated with recurrent spontaneous abortion.

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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the effect of male semen quality, occupational exposure, and lifestyle on recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Information on couples' occupational exposure and lifestyle was collected using a detailed questionnaire from 68 RPL couples and 63 randomly selected healthy controls. Semen parameters were estimated by computer-assisted sperm analysis, and sperm nuclear status was detected with aniline blue (AB) staining. Patients in the RPL group had significantly lower viability, normal morphology, and total progressive motility of sperm, and a higher mean percentage of AB staining positive sperm compared with those of controls (P < 0.05). There were no differences in sperm concentration, and motility between the groups (P > 0.05). Significant odds ratio (OR) was found when occupational exposure and unhealthy habits were superimposed (OR: 11.965, P = 0.005). In addition to standard female factors for evaluating the risk for RPL, the use of male factors should also be taken into consideration. We found that sperm quality, occupational exposure, and lifestyle are factors that affect RPL. Consequently, occupational exposure and lifestyle factors should constitute an important section of questionnaires given to patients, and these factors should be evaluated by a clinician or trained staff.
    Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 09/2013; · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the degree of sperm DNA fragmentation in couples with idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and in those with no history of infertility or abortion. In this cohort study, 30 couples with RSA and 30 fertile couples as control group completed the demographic data questionnaires, and their semen samples were analysed according to World Health Organization (WHO) standards (September 2009-March 2010) for evaluation of sperm DNA fragmentation, using sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) technique. The percentage of morphologically normal sperm was significantly lower in RSA patients compared with control group (51.50 ± 11.60 versus 58.00 ± 9.05, P = 0.019), but not in other parameters. Additionally, the level of abnormal DNA fragmentation in the RSA group was significantly higher than the control group (43.3% versus 16.7%, P = 0.024). Our results indicated a negative correlation between the number of sperm with progressive motility and DNA fragmentation (r = -0.613; P < 0.001). The sperm from men with a history of RSA had a higher incidence of DNA fragmentation and poor motility than those of the control group, indicating a possible relationship between idiopathic RSA and DNA fragmentation.
    Andrologia 12/2012; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES To evaluate and compare standard sperm parameters, and sperm DNA fragmentation in seminal ejaculates from men whose partners had a history of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and in a control group of men who had recently established their fertility. METHODS Semen samples from 31 patients with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss and 20 men with proven fertility were analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines. Sperm DNA fragmentation was detected by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay. RESULTS When sperm quality of the control group was compared with that of the RPL group, a significant difference was observed in sperm motility, but not in other parameters. The mean number of sperm cells with fragmented DNA was significantly increased in the RPL group (32.22 6.14%) compared with control donors (10.20 2.1%). CONCLUSIONS Our data indicate that sperm from men with a history of RPL have a higher incidence of DNA damage and poor motility than sperm from a control group, and this can explain in part the pregnancy loss in these patients. UROLOGY xx: xxx, xxxx. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. R ecurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is traditionally de-fined as the loss of 2 or more consecutive preg-nancies in the first or early second trimester of gestation. 1 RPL in reproductive-age couples is a growing clinical problem that needs adequate attention and in-vestigation. It is a frustrating condition that affects 1% of couples of childbearing age. 2 The etiology of RPL is multiple and multifactorial. RPL is usually approached from the woman's perspective owing to the relationship that exists between the mother and the developing em-bryo. These include genetic, endocrinologic, anatomic, and autoimmune disorders; infection, and systemic ma-ternal diseases. However, the role of male factors in recurrent abortion remains largely unknown and rarely discussed. 1 The frequency with which sperm defects con-tribute to RPL has not been established and attempts to show a relationship between RPL, and sperm quality, evaluated through conventional internationally estab-lished guidelines 3 for semen analyses, have been contro-versial. 4-9 For example, sperm morphology in few in-stances has been attributed as a possible etiology because fertilization with an abnormal sperm may not always result in the healthy maintenance of the conceptus. 10,11 On the contrary, some of the recent studies have shown no significant correlation between abnormal sperm con-centration or sperm morphology with recurrent sponta-neous abortion. 5,6,12 Until recently, it was believed that motility and mor-phology of sperm are most important predictors of fertil-ity potential in man; however, presence of a genetic abnormality, such as sperm DNA fragmentation have more profound implications on embryogenesis and pre-and postnatal growth. 13,14 DNA damage in sperm is promutagenic. It does not impair fertilization or cleavage because paternal genome is transcriptionally inactive un-til two days after fertilization. 15 However, once the pa-ternal genome is active, it results in poor blastocyste development, unequal cleavage, implantation failure, or early fetal loss. 15 The influence of sperm DNA damage on sporadic pregnancy loss has been evaluated mainly after assisted reproductive technology (ART), and negative correlation was observed between the extent of DNA damage and development rate to the blastocyste stage after in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). 16,17 However, few studies have consid-ered couples with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion, and varying results concerning the extent of sperm DNA damage were found in these reports. 12,18-21 Thus the purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare standard sperm parameters and sperm DNA