Evaluation of T-lymphocytes in esophageal mucosal biopsies.
ABSTRACT We previously demonstrated that in esophageal mucosal biopsies, intraepithelial cells with irregular nuclear contours (CINC) as well as mononuclear cells with round nuclei are T-lymphocytes and we suggested that they may be an independent marker of esophagitis. To investigate this hypothesis, we evaluated Hematoxylin and eosin-stained biopsy specimens from 201 consecutive patients (115 female, 86 male; mean age: 52 years) that showed either no accepted features of esophagitis (n = 122) or changes typical of esophageal reflux (n = 79). The number of intraepithelial CINC and mononuclear cells in the most densely populated high power field were counted. Twenty-two of these biopsies were also stained with UCHL-1 (T-lymphocyte marker) and L-26 (B-lymphocyte marker). All medical records were reviewed to determine clinical and endoscopic findings of esophagitis, which were then compared with the histologic results for correlations. The immunohistochemical results confirmed that the majority (> 95%) of CINC and mononuclear cells were T-lymphocytes, and the sum of CINC and mononuclear cells represents best the number of T-lymphocytes. The number of T-lymphocytes was significantly correlated with that of eosinophils (R = 0.24, P = 0.0008) but not with neutrophils (R = 0.069, P = 0.33). They were greater in number, although not significantly so, in the specimens with histologic evidence of esophagitis than those without (12.7 +/- 8.9 versus 11.3 +/- 7.7, P = 0.23).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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ABSTRACT: Lymphocytic oesophagitis (LyE) has been reported in small series, but no consistent clinical correlations have emerged. The authors sought to determine the prevalence of LyE in a large population and define demographic, endoscopic and clinical findings associated with this condition. In a pilot study, the authors established and disseminated criteria for the histopathological diagnosis of LyE to a group of gastrointestinal pathologists. Eighteen months later the authors reviewed cases with this diagnosis, collected demographic, clinical and endoscopic data, and compared them with patients with either eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) or normal oesophageal biopsies. The authors also determined the density of oesophageal lymphocytes in normal controls and in adults with established Crohn's disease. There were 129,252 unique 40,665 had normal mucosa (median age 55 years; 32% men); 3745 had EoE (median age 43 years; 66% men). A diagnosis of LyE was made in 119 patients (median age 63 years, 40% men). Dysphagia was as common in these patients as in those with EoE (53% vs 63%; ns); gastro-oesophageal reflux disease -the most common complaint in patients with normal biopsies (37%)-was low in both the LyE and the EoE groups (18% vs 19%, ns). EoE was suspected in one-third of the patients. LyE was detected in ∼0.1% of patients with oesophageal biopsies. The clinical and endoscopic characteristics of LyE and EoE overlap considerably; however, LyE affects predominantly older women. Although the precise clinical significance of oesophageal lymphocytic infiltrates remain to be defined, their association with dysphagia and possibly motility disorders warrants further investigations.Gut 12/2011; 61(8):1108-14. DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2011-301014 · 13.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reported incidence rates of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) in Barrett's oesophagus (BO) vary widely. As the effectiveness of BO surveillance is crucially dependent on this rate, its clarification is essential. To estimate the rate of malignant progression in patients with BO, all patients with a first diagnosis of BO with no dysplasia (ND) or low-grade dysplasia (LGD) between 1991 and 2006 were identified in the Dutch nationwide registry of histopathology (PALGA). Follow-up data were evaluated up to November 2007. 42 207 patients with BO were included; 4132 (8%) of them had LGD. Re-evaluation endoscopies at least 6 months after initial diagnosis were performed in 16 365 patients (39%), who were significantly younger than those not re-examined (58+/-13 vs 63+/-16 years, p<0.001). These patients were followed-up for a total of 78 131 person-years, during which 666 (4%) high-grade dysplasia (HGD)/OACs occurred, affecting 4% of the surveillance patient population (mean age: 69+/-12 years, 76% male). After excluding HGD/OAC cases detected within 1 year after BO diagnosis (n=212, 32%), incidence rates per 1000 person-years were 4.3 (95% CI 3.4 to 5.5) for OAC and 5.8 (95% CI 4.6 to 7.0) for HGD/OAC combined. Risk factors for HGD/OAC were increased age (eg, >75 years HR 12; 95% CI 8.0 to 18), male sex (2.01; 1.68 to 2.60) and presence of LGD at baseline (1.91; 1.53 to 2.40). In this largest reported cohort of unselected patients with BO, the annual risk of OAC was 0.4%. Male sex, older age and LGD at diagnosis are independent predictors of malignant progression, and should enable an improved risk assessment in BO.Gut 08/2010; 59(8):1030-6. DOI:10.1136/gut.2009.176701 · 13.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess the accuracy of a new ingestion protocol for capsule endoscopy (CE) in evaluating patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). Oesophago-gastroduodenoscopy (OGD) was performed 1 week prior to CE. The first 28 subjects swallowed the capsule following the original ingestion protocol (OIP) and the subsequent 30 subjects following a simplified ingestion protocol (SIP). CE videos were reviewed by two independent investigators who were blinded to the OGD findings. Of 48 patients included, 24 were diagnosed with reflux oesophagitis (67% male, mean age 49.5+/-13 years) and 24 with Barrett oesophagus (BO) (88% male, 55.6+/-10 years) by OGD. In addition, 10 asymptomatic healthy controls (50% male, 45.8+/-7.1 years) were included. Oesophageal transit time was faster in patients using the SIP compared to the OIP (126+/-26 s versus 214+/-33; p=0.04). Complete evaluation of the Z-line was possible in 19/28 (68%) of the OIPs compared to 28/30 (93%) of the SIPs (p=0.04). Sensitivity for detecting any oesophageal abnormality was higher in the SIP group than in the OIP group (97% versus 89%; p=0.11). Overall, CE detected oesophagitis in 22/24 patients (sensitivity, 92%; specificity, 88%) and BO in 23/24 patients (sensitivity, 96%; specificity, 91%). Furthermore, 41/44 (93%) preferred CE over OGD and experienced less discomfort and pain during CE. CE is an accurate method for detecting mucosal oesophageal abnormalities. The new ingestion protocol improves the visualization of the Z-line, which is likely to increase the diagnostic yield of CE.Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2008; 43(7):870-7. DOI:10.1080/00365520801908878 · 2.33 Impact Factor