The neuropsychological tests developed for the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) are currently used to measure cognitive impairments of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in clinical investigations of this disorder. This report presents the normative information for the CERAD battery, obtained in a large sample (n = 413) of control subjects (ages 50 to 89) who were enrolled in 23 university medical centers in the United States participating in the CERAD study from 1987 to 1992. We compared separately the performance of subjects with high (> or = 12) and low (< 12) years of formal education. For many of the individual cognitive measures in the highly educated group, we observed significant age and gender effects. Only the praxis measure showed a significant age effect in the low-education group. Delayed recall, when adjusted for amount of material acquired (savings), was relatively unaffected by age, gender, and level of education. Our findings suggest that the savings scores, in particular, may be useful in distinguishing between AD and normal aging.
"had a negative history of persistent tinnitus, head trauma, neurologic and psychiatric disorders. In addition, older participants passed a screening test for dementia using a German version of the neuropsychological assessment battery of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD-Plus) with normative values adjusted for gender, age and education (Thalmann et al., 2000; Welsh et al., 1994). "
"Neuropsychological assessment consisted of the German version of the CERAD-NP neuropsychological assessment battery     including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Trail Making Test (TMT) , and the Clock-Drawing Test  as well as the subtests logical memory and digit span of the German version of Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-R and WMS IV)  . Furthermore, the short version of the Geriatric Depression Scale  was obtained to exclude depressive symptoms. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bilingualism is associated with enhanced executive functioning and delayed onset of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we investigated neuropsychological differences between mono- and bilingual patients with MCI and AD as well as the respective effects of dementia on the dominant and non-dominant language of bilinguals. 69 patients with MCI (n = 22) or AD (n = 47) and 17 healthy controls were included. 41 subjects were classified as lifelong bilinguals (mean age: 73.6; SD = 11.5) and 45 as monolinguals (mean age: 78.1; SD = 10.9). Neuropsychological performance was assessed on the CERAD-NP, the clock-drawing test, and the logical memory subscale of the Wechsler Memory Scale. Neuropsychological profiles showed only minor nonsignificant differences between mono- and bilingual subjects when compared between diagnostic groups. Bilingual MCI patients scored significantly lower on the verbal fluency and picture naming task in their dominant language than bilingual controls. Bilingual AD patients showed a reduced performance in their nondominant language when compared to bilingual MCI patients and bilingual controls (main effect language dominance: verbal fluency task p < 0.001; BNT p < 0.001). Bilingual MCI and AD patients show a similar pattern of neuropsychological deficits as monolingual patients do. The dominant language appears to be compromised first in bilingual MCI patients, while severe deficits of the nondominant language develop later in the course with manifestation of AD. These findings are important for the diagnostic work up of bilingual patients and the development of improved care concepts for bilingual patients such as migrant populations.
"Control subjects and alcoholic patients underwent a brief neuropsychological evaluation to exclude cognitive dysfunction (Table 1); both obtained normal scores except alcoholic patient CC, who had a score of verbal fluency between 2nd and 5th centile of the normative data. Table 1 shows that the patients with WKS had poor performance on immediate and delayed free recall of a list of words (CERAD Word List Memory task, Welsh et al. 1994), on verbal and non-verbal fluency, and on cognitive flexibility in the Trail Making Test (Army Individual Test Battery 1944) compared to the healthy control group and the patient control group. WKS Patients 1 and 2 had lower scores in the memory task than WKS patients 3 and 4. No lesion was demonstrated in three patients with WKS while bilateral damage of the mammillary bodies was found in patient 1 in the acute stage. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The neural correlate of anterograde amnesia in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is still debated. While the capacity to learn new information has been associated with integrity of the medial temporal lobe (MTL), previous studies indicated that the WKS is associated with diencephalic lesions, mainly in the mammillary bodies and anterior or dorsomedial thalamic nuclei. The present study tested the hypothesis that amnesia in WKS is associated with a disrupted neural circuit between diencephalic and hippocampal structures. High-density evoked potentials were recorded in four severely amnesic patients with chronic WKS, in five patients with chronic alcoholism without WKS, and in ten age matched controls. Participants performed a continuous recognition task of pictures previously shown to induce a left medial temporal lobe dependent positive potential between 250 and 350 ms. In addition, the integrity of the fornix was assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). WKS, but not alcoholic patients without WKS, showed absence of the early, left MTL dependent positive potential following immediate picture repetitions. DTI indicated disruption of the fornix, which connects diencephalic and hippocampal structures. The findings support an interpretation of anterograde amnesia in WKS as a consequence of a disconnection between diencephalic and MTL structures with deficient contribution of the MTL to rapid consolidation.
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