Characterization of a COS cell line deficient in polyamine transport.
ABSTRACT In the present study, we describe the isolation and characterization of a COS cell line deficient in polyamine uptake that may provide an important tool for the molecular cloning of polyamine transporter(s). The cells were selected by isolation for resistance against the cytotoxic agent, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), which is entering the cells using the same transport system as the polyamines. The isolated cell line was capable of growing in the presence of 100 microM MGBG, which totally inhibited the growth of the wild-type cells. The transport of putrescine and spermidine was markedly decreased in the COS-MGBGr cells. The decrease in putrescine transport was mainly a result of a 14-fold decrease in Vmax, whereas the reduced spermidine uptake was due to a 3-4-fold decrease in Vmax as well as 12-fold increase in Km, indicating the existence of at least two separate transport systems. No major difference in polyamine content was seen between the parental and the COS-MGBGr cells when grown without MGBG. In the presence of MGBG, both cell lines exhibited an increase in putrescine content. Treatment with MGBG also resulted in a decrease in spermidine and spermine contents in the wild-type cells. In the COS-MGBGr cells, on the other hand, there were no statistically significant effects on the spermidine and spermine contents by MGBG treatment. In the wild-type cells, depletion of polyamines, e.g., by treatment with the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor 2-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), stimulated the uptake of polyamines (3-7-fold), whereas in the COS-MGBGr cells the effect of DFMO treatment on polyamine transport was only minor. In contrast to the growth-medium of the wild-type cells, large amounts of polyamines accumulated in the medium of the COS-MGBGr cells, presumably indicating that COS cells normally excrete polyamines and then salvage them using the polyamine transport system.
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ABSTRACT: The interactions of spermine (4+ charge at physiological pH), N1-acetylspermine(3+), spermidine(3+), N1- and N8-acetylsperimidine(2+), putrescine(2+), hexaamminecobalt(3+), and magnesium(2+) with nucleosome core particles have been examined by using thermal denaturation and circular dichroism. Tetra- and triamines were 2-3 times more effective than diamines at stabilizing core particles against thermal denaturation. Secondary effects were also observed, with acetylpolyamines slightly less effective than unmodified polyamines of equivalent charge. Hexaamminecobalt(3+) was less effective than the triamines, while magnesium had essentially no effect. This is surprising since magnesium is more effective than diamines at stabilizing naked DNA. All the cations tested altered the circular dichroism spectra of the core particles in the DNA region (284 nm). The peak at 284 nm was suppressed by tetra- and trivalent compounds to approximately twice the extent of divalent compounds. Magnesium appears to suppress the peak by a lesser extent than the diamines. This indicates that the DNA twist and/or folding is changed by these cations. A plateau of both thermal denaturation and circular dichroism effects was observed at cation concentrations where 30-40% of the total DNA negative charges could be neutralized by the added cations. We suggest that polyamine and histone acetylation function in concert to lower the stability and change the conformation of the nucleosome core, thus facilitating replication and transcription in vivo.Biochemistry 07/1987; 26(12):3643-9. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The rate-limiting enzymes in polyamine biosynthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC), are negatively regulated by the polyamines spermidine and spermine. In the present work the spermidine synthase inhibitor S-adenosyl-1,8-diamino-3-thio-octane (AdoDATO) and the spermine synthase inhibitor S-methyl-5'-methylthioadenosine (MMTA) were used to evaluate the regulatory role of the individual polyamines. Treatment of Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells with AdoDATO caused a marked decrease in spermidine content together with an accumulation of putrescine and spermine. Treatment with MMTA, on the other hand, gave rise to a marked decrease in spermine, with a simultaneous accumulation of spermidine. A dramatic increase in the activity of AdoMetDC, but not of ODC, was observed in MMTA-treated cells. This increase appears to be unrelated to the decrease in spermine content, because a similar rise in AdoMetDC activity was obtained when AdoDATO was given in addition to MMTA, in which case the spermine content remained largely unchanged. Instead, we show that the increase in AdoMetDC activity is mainly due to stabilization of the enzyme, probably by binding of MMTA. Treatment with AdoDATO had no effects on the activities of ODC and AdoMetDC, even though it caused a precipitous decrease in spermidine content. The expected decrease in spermidine-mediated suppression of ODC and AdoMetDC was most probably counteracted by the simultaneous increase in spermine. The combination of AdoDATO and MMTA caused a transient rise in ODC activity. Concomitant with this rise, the putrescine and spermidine contents increased, whereas that of spermine remained virtually unchanged. The increase in ODC activity was due to increased synthesis of the enzyme. There were no major effects on the amount of AdoMetDC mRNA by treatment with the inhibitors, alone or in combination. However, the synthesis of AdoMetDC was slightly stimulated in cells treated with MMTA or AdoDATO plus MMTA. The present study demonstrates that regulation of neither ODC nor AdoMetDC is a direct function of the polyamine structure. Instead, it appears that the biosynthesis of the polyamines is feedback-regulated by the various polyamines at many different levels.Biochemical Journal 08/1989; 261(1):205-10. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transformed baby-hamster-kidney cells contain higher intracellular concentrations of polyamines than do normal cells. The difference is greater in high-density confluent cultures. Transformed cells incorporate exogenous putrescine into the cells at a faster rate than do normal cells. They also show a marked increase in the rate of spermine biosynthesis compared with normal cells. Transformed cells grown to high cell densities released about 10% of their polyamines into the culture medium in a non-specific manner. In contrast, normal cells, under the same culture conditions, release up to 50% of their intracellular polyamines into the medium almost exclusively as free or conjugated spermidine. The elevated levels of polyamines found in transformed cells therefore appear to be the result of altered transport of polyamines across the cell membrane and of increased rates of biosynthesis.Biochemical Journal 04/1982; 202(3):785-90. · 4.65 Impact Factor