Acetazolamide-induced nephrolithiasis: Implications for treatment of neuromuscular disorders
ABSTRACT Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors can cause nephrolithiasis. We studied 20 patients receiving long-term carbonic anhydrase inhibitor treatment for periodic paralysis and myotonia. Three patients on acetazolamide (15%) developed renal calculi. Extracorporeal lithotripsy successfully removed a renal calculus in one patient and surgery removed a staghorn calculus in another, permitting continued treatment. Renal function remained normal in all patients. Nephrolithiasis is a complication of acetazolamide but does not preclude its use.
SourceAvailable from: Randolph EvansHeadache The Journal of Head and Face Pain 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/head.12565 · 3.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transient attacks of weakness in hypokalaemic periodic paralysis are caused by reduced fibre excitability from paradoxical depolarization of the resting potential in low potassium. Mutations of calcium channel and sodium channel genes have been identified as the underlying molecular defects that cause instability of the resting potential. Despite these scientific advances, therapeutic options remain limited. In a mouse model of hypokalaemic periodic paralysis from a sodium channel mutation (NaV1.4-R669H), we recently showed that inhibition of chloride influx with bumetanide reduced the susceptibility to attacks of weakness, in vitro. The R528H mutation in the calcium channel gene (CACNA1S encoding CaV1.1) is the most common cause of hypokalaemic periodic paralysis. We developed a CaV1.1-R528H knock-in mouse model of hypokalaemic periodic paralysis and show herein that bumetanide protects against both muscle weakness from low K(+) challenge in vitro and loss of muscle excitability in vivo from a glucose plus insulin infusion. This work demonstrates the critical role of the chloride gradient in modulating the susceptibility to ictal weakness and establishes bumetanide as a potential therapy for hypokalaemic periodic paralysis arising from either NaV1.4 or CaV1.1 mutations.Brain 10/2013; DOI:10.1093/brain/awt280 · 10.23 Impact Factor
Headache The Journal of Head and Face Pain 01/2015; 55(1). DOI:10.1111/head.12480 · 3.19 Impact Factor