Relation of Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness to the Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Men
ABSTRACT Previous studies have suggested that higher levels of regular physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. We investigated the independent associations of physical activity during leisure time and maximal oxygen uptake (a measure of cardiorespiratory fitness) with the risk of acute myocardial infarction.
During the period 1984 to 1989, we performed base-line examinations in 1453 men 42 to 60 years old who did not report having cardiovascular disease or cancer. Physical activity was assessed quantitatively with a detailed questionnaire, and maximal oxygen uptake was measured directly by exercise testing. During an average follow-up of 4.9 years, 42 of the 1166 men with normal electrocardiograms at base line had a first acute myocardial infarction.
After adjustment for age and the year of examination, the relative hazard (risk) of myocardial infarction in the third of subjects with the highest level of physical activity (> 2.2 hours per week) was 0.31 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.12 to 0.85; P = 0.02), as compared with the third with the lowest level (P = 0.04 for linear trend over all three groups). The relative hazard in the third with the highest maximal oxygen uptake (> 2.7 liters per minute) was 0.26 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.10 to 0.68; P = 0.006) (P = 0.006 for linear trend), after adjustment for age, the year and season when the examination was performed, weight, height, and the type of respiratory-gas analyzer used. After up to 17 confounding variables were controlled for, the relative hazards for the third of subjects with the highest level of physical activity (0.34; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.12 to 0.94; P = 0.04) and maximal oxygen uptake (0.35; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.13 to 0.92; P = 0.03), as compared with the values in the lowest third, were significantly (P < 0.05) less than 1.0.
Higher levels of both leisure-time physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness had a strong, graded, inverse association with the risk of acute myocardial infarction, supporting the idea that lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are independent risk factors for coronary heart disease.
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ABSTRACT: Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by poor motor skills leading to a significant impairment in activities of daily living. Compared to typically developing children, those with DCD are less fit and physically active, and have increased body fat. This is an important consequence as both sedentary lifestyle and obesity are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. One indicator of cardiovascular health is baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), which is a measure of short term blood pressure (BP) regulation and is partly accomplished through changes in heart rate. Diminished BRS is predictive of future cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to compare BRS in typically developing (TD) adolescents with probable DCD (pDCD) or suspect pDCD (spDCD) adolescents (13-14 years of age). Percentile scores on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd edition, assessed at two time points were averaged and used to classify participants into the following groups: pDCD ≤ 5th percentile, spDCD > 5th percentile and ≤16th percentile and TD>16th percentile. Following 15 min of supine rest, 5 min of continuous beat-by-beat blood pressure (Finapres) and R-R interval were recorded (standard ECG). Spectral indices were computed using Fast Fourier Transform with transfer function analysis used to compute BRS in the low frequency region (0.04-0.15 Hz). BRS was compared between groups with an ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni correction. BRS was reduced in the pDCD compared to the TD groups. In multivariate regression analyses predicting BRS, when pDCD and spDCD were entered as the only variables, pDCD was found to be a significant predictor of BRS (b=-6.74, p=0.016). However, when sex, VO(2) peak, and percent body fat (PBF) were entered as covariates, pDCD was no longer a predictor, while PBF approached significance (-0.32, p=0.056). Therefore, in this sample, BRS was reduced in adolescents with pDCD principally due to increased PBF.Research in developmental disabilities 01/2012; 33(1):251-7. DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2011.09.013 · 4.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between adverse childhood experiences and binge drinking and drunkenness in adulthood using both historical and recalled data from childhood. Methods. Data on childhood adverse experiences were collected from school health records and questionnaires completed in adulthood. Adulthood data were obtained from the baseline examinations of the male participants (n = 2682) in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD) in 1984-1989 from eastern Finland. School health records from the 1930s to 1950s were available for a subsample of KIHD men (n = 952). Results. According to the school health records, men who had adverse childhood experiences had a 1.51-fold (95% CI 1.05 to 2.18) age- and examination-year adjusted odds of binge drinking in adulthood. After adjustment for socioeconomic position in adulthood or behavioural factors in adulthood, the association remained unchanged. Adjustment for socioeconomic position in childhood attenuated these effects. Also the recalled data showed associations with adverse childhood experiences and binge drinking with different beverages. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that childhood adversities are associated with increased risk of binge drinking in adulthood.11/2011; 2011:478741. DOI:10.4061/2011/478741
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