Effect of light intensity and exposure duration on cure of resin composite.
ABSTRACT Of the many factors under their control, clinicians can manipulate light-exposure duration but must deal with a set intensity of light emitted from the dental curing unit. This research investigates the interdependence of exposure duration and source intensity on resin cure at various depths within a simulated light-cured resin composite restoration. This wafers of composite were obtained from a simulated cylindrical restoration such that the wafer could be removed from the top or from a distance of 1, 2, and 3 mm beneath the surface. The composites used in this study were a microfill and hybrid of Universal and Gray shades. All the data concerning filler type and shade were pooled so that generalized statements could be made regarding curing of light-activated composite in general. Specimens were cured using various source intensities and for different durations at each level within the cured cylinder. The cure of the specimens resulting from the different treatments was determined using infrared spectroscopy. The results indicate a dramatic effect of depth on the cure of composite. At depths greater than 2 mm, poor cure results, and polymerization is very susceptible to changes in light intensity and exposure duration. From these results, routine exposure times of 60 seconds are recommended using light-source intensities of at least 400 mW/cm2 as measured with a commercial dental light intensity meter. Incremental layer thickness should not exceed 2 mm, with 1 mm being ideal. Sources with intensity values less than 233 mW/cm2 should not be used because of their poor cure characteristics.
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ABSTRACT: To define the cytotoxicity of a photo-cured composite when used as a bonding system under a composite inlay. Composite specimens were photo-cured with or without a 2 mm composite inlay interposed between them and the light source. Samples were extracted in complete cell culture medium and the obtained eluates applied to primary cultures of human pulp and gingival fibroblasts. After 72 h of incubation, cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. Survival rates were calculated with respect to negative controls. Both shielded and unshielded composite samples were cytotoxic to pulp and gingival cells. The inlay shielded composite samples reached a significantly higher level of cytotoxicity compared to the unshielded ones. The results suggested that the cytotoxicity of a light-cured composite resin used as a bonding system for indirect composite restorations may be significantly increased as a result of an inlay light-shielding effect.Dental Materials 01/2007; 22(12):1081-5. DOI:10.1016/j.dental.2005.08.009 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To verify the influence of radiant exposure (H) on contraction stress (CS), degree of conversion (DC) and mechanical properties of two restorative composites. Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE) and Heliomolar (Ivoclar) were photoactivated with 6, 12, 24, or 36 J/cm2 at continuous irradiance of 600 mW/cm2. CS at 10 min was determined in a low compliance testing system. DC, flexural strength (FS), flexural modulus (FM) and Knoop microhardness (KHN) were measured after 24 h storage at 37 degrees C. KHN and DC measurements were conducted on the irradiated surface of 1mm thick disk-shaped specimens. Bar-shaped specimens were submitted to three-point bending to determine FS and FM. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA/Tukey's test (alpha = 0.05) separately for each composite. For Filtek Z250, no significant increase in CS was observed above 12 J/cm2. DC and FM were similar at all H values, while FS increased significantly between 6 and 24 J/cm2. KHN was significantly different among all H levels, except between 12 and 24 J/cm2. For Heliomolar, CS and KHN increased significantly with H, except between 24 and 36 J/cm2. DC, FM and FS did not vary, regardless of the radiant exposure. Variables tested behaved differently. CS and KHN were more sensitive to increasing radiant exposures than the other properties evaluated. FS varied only for Filtek Z250, while, for both composites, DC and FM were not affected by different H values.Dental Materials 10/2006; 22(9):799-803. DOI:10.1016/j.dental.2005.11.008 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether marginal adhesion is sensitive to different irradiation parameters, we investigated the in vitro adhesion values of four dental resins on metal surfaces. Four groups of eight specimens each of Z250, Filtek flow, Dyract AP and Dyract flow were placed in pre-treated stainless steel cavities and irradiated using different methods of exposure. The curing lights used were a Spectrum 800 halogen curing light at settings of 800 and 450 mW/cm(2) and an Optilux 501 ramping light. The maximum amount of push-out force required to displace the resin from the metal cavity was equated with adhesive value (shear bond strength). Comparisons (ANOVA, p<0.0001) were made within the same material and between the different materials when using different curing protocols. Significant lower bond strengths were recorded when curing was done by gradually increasing the intensity (ramping method) compared to curing with the fixed intensities (p>0.0001) Comparing the fixed intensities, significant lower bond strength values were obtained at 800 mW/cm(2) compared to 450 mW/cm(2) (p<0.0001). For all exposures, the two flowable materials demonstrated weaker values when compared to the higher filled materials. The advantage of initial slow polymerization (more elasticity and less tension) obtained by the so-called "soft start" method, was offset by a rise in total polymerization shrinkage, when final curing was completed at 1130 mW/cm(2). These tests demonstrated that using halogen units, exposure for 40s with an intensity of 450 mW/cm(2) appeared to be the most promising for light-curing dental resin composites.Biomaterials 09/2003; 24(20):3593-8. DOI:10.1016/S0142-9612(03)00211-4 · 8.31 Impact Factor