Childhood separation anxiety disorder in patients with adult anxiety disorders.
ABSTRACT The authors examined the relation between retrospectively reported childhood separation anxiety disorder and adult DSM-III-R anxiety disorders in 252 outpatients at an anxiety disorders research clinic. The prevalence of childhood separation anxiety disorder was significantly greater among patients with two or more lifetime adult anxiety disorder diagnoses than it was among patients with only one anxiety disorder, suggesting that childhood separation anxiety disorder may be a risk factor for multiple anxiety syndromes in adulthood.
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ABSTRACT: Adults with panic disorder (PD) and children with separation anxiety disorder (CSAD) show higher reactivity to CO(2). Our hypothesis was patients with adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) would show similar hypersensitivity to CO(2). In the present study, we determined whether sensitivity to CO(2) was enhanced in adult patients with separation anxiety disorder with no history of panic attacks. Patients with PD (n=38), adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) patients with no history of panic attacks (n=31), and healthy subjects (n=40) underwent a 35% CO(2) inhalation challenge procedure. Baseline and post-inhalation anxiety were assessed with the Acute Panic Inventory, Visual Analog Scale, and Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3). As hypothesized the rate of CO(2)-induced panic attacks was significantly greater in PD and ASAD patient groups (55.3% and 51.6% respectively) than healthy comparison group (17.5%). Nine (69.2%) of 13 patients in PD group who have ASAD concurrent with PD had a CO(2)-induced panic attack. ASI-3 total scores were not different between PD and ASAD groups and both were significantly higher than controls. However, anxiety sensitivity did not predict the occurrence of panic attacks. The researchers were not blind to the diagnosis and there was no placebo arm for comparison. Besides, parameters of respiratory physiology were not evaluated. ASAD was associated with CO(2) hypersensitivity quite similar to PD. This finding partly unfolds the complex relationship of 'CSAD, PD, and CO(2) hypersensitivity' and indicates that CO(2) hypersensitivity and separation anxiety extend together beyond childhood.Journal of Affective Disorders 04/2012; 141(2-3):315-23. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2012.03.032 · 3.71 Impact Factor
- Different Views of Anxiety Disorders, 09/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-560-0
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ABSTRACT: Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common mental disorders in childhood, and one of the earliest emerging. Little is known about the association between SAD and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating this association in children suffering from separation anxiety compared to healthy controls. A total of 31 children with diagnosed SAD (mean age: 8.45; 17 females, 14 males) and 25 healthy controls (HC; mean age: 9.74; 12 females, 13 males) took part in the study. All participants underwent psycho-physiological testing for HPA axis challenge. Testing consisted of a separation and a social exposure paradigm. Saliva samples to assess HPA axis-related cortisol secretion were gathered in parallel. Compared to healthy controls, children with SAD showed greatly increased HPA axis activity, as reflected by an increased cortisol secretion throughout the entire period of investigation. The rise of cortisol was already observed in anticipation of, but not following the separation paradigm. No gender-related differences of cortisol secretion were observed. Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in children is reflected in greatly increased HPA axis activity. Compared to healthy controls, children with SAD showed increased cortisol values from the beginning of, and throughout, the entire investigation. This pattern of results suggests that both the anticipation of a separation and a persistent hyperactivity of the HPA axis system leads to an increased cortisol secretion.Journal of Psychiatric Research 04/2011; 45(4):452-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2010.08.014 · 4.09 Impact Factor