Progressive escape from parathyroid suppression: a common phenomenon in primary hyperparathyroidism (a calcium clamp study).
ABSTRACT Induced aggravation of hypercalcaemia in vivo and in vitro causes partial suppression of parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP). Furthermore, one in-vitro study also demonstrates progressive escape from such action. The aim of the present in-vivo study was to examine whether escape from suppression is a common feature of PHP.
A rapid increment in blood ionized calcium (B-Ca2+) to 0.25-0.30 mmol/l above individual baselines was achieved by intravenous calcium infusions. This induced or aggravated hypercalcaemia was kept constant for 2 hours (controls) or 4 hours (patients).
The study of PHP comprised 19 patients (18 females and one male) aged 39-85 years (geometric mean 66). For comparison we included the results obtained in a control group of 24 healthy subjects (11 women and 13 men) aged 20-68 years (geometric mean 32).
The individual levels of B-Ca2+ were controlled by frequent bedside measurements of B-Ca2+. The changes in serum intact parathyroid hormone (S-PTH(1-84)) were registered.
After 30 minutes of calcium infusion average concentrations of S-PTH(1-84) had decreased from 7.9 (6.7-9.4) pmol/l in PHP and 2.5 (2.1-2.9) pmol/l in controls to their respective nadir values of 2.9 (2.1-4.1) pmol/l and 0.6 (0.5-0.8) pmol/l. While S-PTH(1-84) remained suppressed at a stable level for 120 minutes in controls, in PHP it started to escape progressively after 30 minutes to a level of 4.2 (3.0-5.8) pmol/l (P < 0.001). Linear regression analysis of the individual S-PTH(1-84) observations in PHP, from 30 to 240 minutes of study, revealed that five patients did not escape (group A) while the remainder 14 patients escaped progressively (group B). Within group B, seven patients escaped significantly after 120 minutes, 10 after 180 minutes and 14 after 240 minutes. Although comparable respecting B-Ca2+ before and during calcium infusion, group A and B presented different S-PTH(1-84) curves. Thus, at times zero, 30, 120 and 240 minutes their respective average concentrations of S-PTH(1-84) measured 9.9 (9.1-10.9) vs 7.3 (5.9-9.0) (P < 0.02), 4.6 (3.7-5.7) vs 2.5 (1.6-3.9) (P < 0.01), 5.0 (3.9-6.5) vs 3.0 (1.9-4.8) (P < 0.05) and 5.2 (3.6-7.4) vs 3.9 (2.6-6.0) (NS) pmol/l.
We hypothesize that two different mechanisms are involved in the parathyroid response to the calcium clamp, an initial and fast inhibition of PTH release, while the subsequent course depends on the balance between the intra-glandular secretion rate of PTH and the intra-glandular capacity for PTH degradation. The escape from parathyroid suppression during a sustained stable increment in B-Ca2+ suggests that the basal secretion over-rides degradation in a majority of the patients with PHP.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 03/1978; 46(2):267-75. DOI:10.1210/jcem-46-2-267 · 6.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The influence of serum calcium concentration on total circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) and on the relative amount of intact PTH-(1-84) and large carboxyterminal fragments was studied in the canine and bovine species and in man. Serum calcium was modified through infusions of CaCl2 or EDTA and samples obtained in time for the measurement of serum calcium and PTH concentrations. Pools of serum, corresponding to specific serum calcium concentrations, were analyzed by gel chromatography in all species. PTH was measured with a carboxyterminal radioimmunoassay. In basal conditions, total serum PTH was composed mostly of large carboxyterminal fragments, intact PTH-(1-84) representing less than 25% of the hormone in any species. With hypercalcemia, (greater than or equal to 2.0 mg/dl), total serum PTH decreased only to 40% of the original value measured in all species, despite serum calcium concentrations of over 13 mg/dl. The relative amount of intact PTH-(1-84) remained unchanged in the bovine and canine species and slightly decreased in man. Hypocalcemia (less than or equal to 2.0 mg/dl) induced a 300-450% increase in the basal PTH value measured. The relative amount of intact PTH-(1-84) became as or more important than carboxyterminal fragments in the canine species and in man, respectively, and remained slightly less in the bovine species. Despite small quantitative variations between species, these results indicate that changes in serum calcium concentration induced acute modification in PTH secretion or PTH peripheral metabolism, altering the ratio of intact hormone to carboxyterminal fragments in circulation.The American journal of physiology 01/1987; 251(6 Pt 1):E680-7. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Twenty normal individuals received 2-h iv infusions of CaCl2 and Na2 ethylenediamine tetra-acetate, with sampling every 15 min. PTH was measured by means of an intact hormone assay (I) and two carboxylterminal assays structured to react mostly with mid (M) or late (L) carboxylterminal fragments. A mathematical model was used to fit the sigmoidal relationship between ionized calcium (CA++) and PTH values. The influence of Ca++ on circulating PTH immunoheterogeneity was assessed via changes in L/I, M/I, and M/L ratios. Results are reported as means +/- SD. Response to hypocalcemia was highest with M (57.8 +/- 26.4 pmol/L, P less than 0.005 vs. L or I) and higher with L (20.1 +/- 5.6 pmol/L; P less than 0.0005 vs. I) than with I (14.1 +/- 6.4 pmol/L). L/I, M/I, and M/L decreased from 2.43 +/- 0.56 to 1.54 +/- 0.19 (P less than 0.0005), 8.44 +/- 2.38 to 4.36 +/- 4.07 (P less than 0.0005), and 3.49 +/- 0.71 to 2.86 +/- 0.76 (P less than 0.005), respectively, during Na2 ethylenediamine tetra-acetate infusion. Nonsuppressible PTH was again higher with M (13.7 +/- 4.8 pmol/L; P less than 0.0005 vs. L or I) and higher with L (2.8 +/- 0.7 pmol/L, P less than 0.0005 vs. I) than with I (0.5 +/- 0.3 pmol/L). L/I, M/I, and M/L ratios increased from 2.47 +/- 0.97 to 5.35 +/- 2.09 (P less than 0.0005), 8.90 +/- 3.10 to 29.56 +/- 14.89 (P less than 0.0005), and 3.62 +/- 0.90 to 5.30 +/- 1.91 (P less than 0.005) during CaCl2 infusion. The set-point for PTH stimulation by calcium was similar for M (1.15 +/- 0.035 mmol/L) and L (1.175 +/- 0.041 mmol/L) but significantly higher with the I assay (1.184 +/- 0.31 mmol/L; P less than 0.0005 vs. M). The M/I, L/I, and M/L ratio set-points were similar at 1.28 +/- 0.01, 1.27 +/- 0.01, and 1.29 +/- 0.02 mmol/L. Thus, even if proportionately more intact PTH and less carboxylterminal fragments are produced and secreted during hypocalcemia, the latter still predominate in the circulation. Furthermore, at high calcium values, secretion of fragments is less well inhibited than that of intact hormone. The lower secretion and higher ratio set-points suggest that the secretion and intracellular degradation of PTH have different sensitivities to inhibition by calcium.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 04/1992; 74(3):525-32. DOI:10.1210/jcem.74.3.1740486 · 6.31 Impact Factor