Heaton RK, Velin RA, McCutchan JA, Gulevich SJ, Atkinson JH, Wallace MR, et al. Neuropsychological impairment in human immunodeficiency virus-infection: implications for employment. HNRC Group. HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center

University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine.
Psychosomatic Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.47). 01/1994; 56(1):8-17. DOI: 10.1097/00006842-199401000-00001
Source: PubMed


Individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus-Type 1 (HIV-1), are at increased risk for neurobehavioral impairment, particularly in later stages of the disease. Even patients in the medically asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic stages of infection may show mild deficits on comprehensive neuropsychological (NP) test batteries, although the clinical significance of such deficits remains uncertain. The present study used vocational difficulties as markers of clinical significance of NP impairment. In a sample of 289 HIV-infected, nondemented men, those who evidenced NP impairment had a higher unemployment rate (p < .001) than did their unimpaired counterparts. In HIV-positive subjects who remained employed, NP impairment was strongly associated with subjective decreases in job-related abilities. Neither depression nor medical symptoms could explain the relationship between the NP impairment and employment problems. These results are consistent with previous studies investigating other neuropsychiatric disorders, which suggest that even mild NP impairment can interfere with employment status. From this standpoint, such impairment in HIV-infected persons may be described as "clinically significant."

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    • "However , HIV-infected patients remain at a significantly increased risk of developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), with 35–70% of all patients (treated and untreated) exhibiting at least subtle impairments on tests of neuropsychological function [Antinori et al., 2007; Cysique and Brew, 2009; Gannon et al., 2011; Heaton et al., 2010, 2011; Robertson et al., 2007; Sacktor et al., 2002; Simioni et al., 2010; Tozzi et al., 2007]. Patients with HAND are more likely to be unemployed, have greater problems with medication adherence, and have lower quality of life [Albert et al., 1995; Heaton et al., 1994, 2004; Kaplan et al., 1995; Marcotte et al., 2004; van Gorp et al., 1999]. Thus, the economic and societal burdens of HIV/AIDS are accentuated by cases of HAND. "
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    ABSTRACT: Combination antiretroviral therapy transformed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection from a terminal illness to a manageable condition, but these patients remain at a significantly elevated risk of developing cognitive impairments and the mechanisms are not understood. Some previous neuroimaging studies have found hyperactivation in frontoparietal networks of HIV-infected patients, whereas others reported aberrations restricted to sensory cortices. In this study, we utilize high-resolution structural and neurophysiological imaging to determine whether alterations in brain structure, function, or both contribute to HIV-related cognitive impairments. HIV-infected adults and individually matched controls completed 3-Tesla structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and a mechanoreception task during magnetoencephalography (MEG). MEG data were examined using advanced beamforming methods, and sMRI data were analyzed using the latest voxel-based morphometry methods with DARTEL. We found significantly reduced theta responses in the postcentral gyrus and increased alpha activity in the prefrontal cortices of HIV-infected patients compared with controls. Patients also had reduced gray matter volume in the postcentral gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and other regions. Importantly, reduced gray matter volume in the left postcentral gyrus was spatially coincident with abnormal MEG responses in HIV-infected patients. Finally, left prefrontal and postcentral gyrus activity was correlated with neuropsychological performance and, when used in conjunction, these two MEG findings had a sensitivity and specificity of over 87.5% for HIV-associated cognitive impairment. This study is the first to demonstrate abnormally increased activity in association cortices with simultaneously decreased activity in sensory areas. These MEG findings had excellent sensitivity and specificity for HIV-associated cognitive impairment, and may hold promise as a potential disease marker.
    Human Brain Mapping 11/2014; 36(3). DOI:10.1002/hbm.22674 · 5.97 Impact Factor
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    • "MNI affects 20–30% of individuals living with HIV [6] and is similarly defined as a deficit at least 1 SD below the mean for age–education-appropriate norms on neuropsychological tests in at least two areas. However, MNI also includes evidence of at least mild interference on daily functioning [10–13], work performance [14–16], medication adherence [12,17] and quality of life [18]. Finally, HAD, with a prevalence of 2–8% [6] is defined as a deficit at least 2 SD below the mean for age–education-appropriate norms on neuropsychological tests in at least two areas and significant interference with daily functioning [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Research investigating HIV, neurocognition and ageing is well developed using neuropsychometric or other quantitative approaches; however, little is known about individuals’ subjective experiences. The purpose of this article is to explore the experiences of men aged 50 and older who self-identify as having HIV-associated neurocognitive challenges. In particular, this study uses the Episodic Disability Framework (EDF) to explore participants’ perceptions regarding: 1) symptoms/impairments, difficulties with day-to-day activities, challenges with social inclusion and uncertainty; 2) ageing as related to their HIV-associated neurocognitive challenges, and 3) the episodic nature of their HIV-associated neurocognitive challenges. Methods This qualitative, interpretive study involved in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 12 men aged 50 years and older who self-identified as having HIV-associated neurocognitive challenges. Participants were recruited from a neurobehavioural research unit (NBRU) at a large hospital in Toronto, Canada. Data were analyzed thematically and with reference to the EDF. Results Participants’ experiences reflected all concepts within the EDF to some extent. Difficulties with daily activities were diverse but were addressed using similar living strategies. Participants described challenges with work and social relationships resulting from neurocognitive challenges. Participants downplayed the significance of uncertainty in their lives, which they attributed to effective living strategies. Most men reported confusion regarding the link between their neurocognitive challenges and ageing. Others discussed ageing as an asset that helped with coping. Conclusions This is the first study to use a disability framework to examine the subjective experiences of men ageing with HIV-associated neurocognitive challenges. Findings reframe the episodic disability experienced by these individuals as being predictably linked to certain triggers. As such, support for managing neurocognitive challenges could focus on triggers that exacerbate the condition in addition to the impairments themselves. The study also describes ageing as not only a source of problems but also as an asset among men growing older with HIV.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 07/2013; 16(1):18506. DOI:10.7448/IAS.16.1.18506 · 5.09 Impact Factor
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    • "Given its utility in predicting IADL status, a post hoc exploratory analysis was also conducted to examine potential differences between unemployed and employed individuals on the multitasking overall score. Individuals who were less than one half time employed were considered unemployed, while individuals who were more than half time employed were considered employed (Heaton et al., 1994). Two participants reported a work status that was ambiguous, with one classified as employed and one unemployed after further review. "
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    ABSTRACT: A subset of individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment experience related deficits in "real world" functioning (i.e., independently performing instrumental activities of daily living [IADL]). While performance-based tests of everyday functioning are reasonably sensitive to HIV-associated IADL declines, questions remain regarding the extent to which these tests' highly structured nature fully captures the inherent complexities of daily life. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive and ecological validity of a novel multitasking measure in HIV infection. Participants included 60 individuals with HIV infection (HIV+) and 25 demographically comparable seronegative adults (HIV-). Participants were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, questionnaires assessing mood and everyday functioning, and a novel standardized test of multitasking, which involved balancing the demands of four interconnected performance-based functional tasks (i.e., financial management, cooking, medication management, and telephone communication). HIV+ individuals demonstrated significantly worse overall performance, fewer simultaneous task attempts, and increased errors on the multitasking test as compared to the HIV- group. Within the HIV+ sample, multitasking impairments were modestly associated with deficits on standard neuropsychological measures of executive functions, episodic memory, attention/working memory, and information processing speed, providing preliminary evidence for convergent validity. More importantly, multivariate prediction models revealed that multitasking deficits were uniquely predictive of IADL dependence beyond the effects of depression and global neurocognitive impairment, with excellent sensitivity (86%), but modest specificity (57%). Taken together, these data indicate that multitasking ability may play an important role in successful everyday functioning in HIV+ individuals.
    Neuropsychology 03/2011; 25(4):511-9. DOI:10.1037/a0022491 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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