A universal nucleoside for use at ambiguous sites in DNA primers.
ABSTRACT A non-discriminatory base analogue, or universal base, would be an invaluable component of oligonucleotide probes and primers for solving the design problems that arise as a result of the degeneracy of the genetic code, or when only fragmentary peptide sequence data are available. We have designed an alternative to previous universal nucleoside candidates, a new analogue, 1-(2'-deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-3-nitropyrrole (designated M; Fig. 1), which maximizes stacking while minimizing hydrogen-bonding interactions without sterically disrupting a DNA duplex. Oligonucleotides containing M at several sites were used as primers for sequencing and the polymerase chain reaction. The sequencing primer d(5'-CGT AAM CAM AAM ACM AT-3') is as effective as the exact match d(5'-CGT AAT CAG AAA ACA AT-3'). It is also possible to sequence using a primer containing M at several contiguous positions, for example d(5'-CGT AAT MMM MMM MMM AT-3'). Melting curves show that duplexes formed on hybridization of the sequences d(5'-CCT TTT TMT TTT TGG-3') and d(5'-CCA AAA AXA AAA AGG-3'), where X is A, C, G or T, melted at a lower temperature than the corresponding duplexes containing only d(A.T) and d(C.G) base pairs, but showing little variation among different X bases (Tm range 3 degrees C).
Article: Nucleobase analogs for degenerate hybridization devised through conformational pairing analysis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A conformational pairing analysis was used to devise nucleobase analogs capable of forming nonselective and energetically favorable base pairs opposite either the purine or the pyrimidine constituents of nucleic acids. 5-methylisocytosine and isoguanine were conceived as a degenerate pyrimidine and a degenerate purine, respectively. Data from previous DNA duplex melting experiments verified that the analogs can act as degenerate nucleobases as hypothesized. Isoguanine also formed unusually stable base pairs with guanine. A quantitative PCR assay yielding equivalent results across hepatitis C virus (HCV) subtypes was created with this system, despite the use of a single probe targeted to a polymorphic region. Amplification curves using probes with 5-methylisocytosine or isoguanine opposite appropriate ambiguous target positions exhibited more signal than curves from similar probes containing common degenerate nucleobase hypoxanthine.BioTechniques 12/2007; 43(5):617-8, 620, 622 passim. · 2.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: DNA is not only a carrier of genetic information, but it is also a versatile supramolecular scaffold, arranging smaller organic structures into predesigned geometries. Herein are discussed molecular strategies in which the natural DNA bases on the sugar-phosphate backbone are replaced by other molecules. Some of the base replacements under study include fluorophores, ligands for metals, helix stabilizers, and DNA base shape mimics.Accounts of Chemical Research 12/2002; 35(11):936-43. · 21.64 Impact Factor
Article: The effect of amino groups on the stability of DNA duplexes and triplexes based on purines derived from inosine.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The effect of amino groups attached at positions 2 and 8 of the hypoxanthine moiety in the structure, reactivity and stability of DNA duplexes and triplexes is studied by means of quantum mechanical calculations, as well as extended molecular dynamics (MD) and thermodynamic integration (MD/TI) simulations. Theoretical estimates of the change in stability related to 2'-deoxyguanosine (G) --> 2'-deoxyinosine (I) --> 8-amino-2'-deoxyinosine (8AI) mutations have been experimentally verified, after synthesis of the corresponding compounds. An amino group placed at position 2 stabilizes the duplex, as expected, and surprisingly also the triplex. The presence of an amino group at position 8 of the hypoxanthine moiety stabilizes the triplex but, surprisingly, destabilizes the duplex. The subtle electronic redistribution occurring upon the introduction of an amino group on the purine seems to be responsible for this surprising behavior. Interesting 'universal base' properties are found for 8AI.Nucleic Acids Research 06/2001; 29(12):2522-34. · 8.03 Impact Factor