HIV-1 nucleic acids localize to the spermatogonia and their progeny. A study by polymerase chain reaction in situ hybridization.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the histological distribution of in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified HIV-1 nucleic acids in the male genital tract to elucidate the mechanism of sexual transmission of AIDS. Viral DNA was detected in the testicular tissue of 11 of 12 men with HIV-1 infection using the PCR in situ hybridization technique. The amplified viral DNA localized to many spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and rare spermatids. Relatively few viral infected macrophages were noted, mostly in the prostate. The viral infection was activated given the presence of cDNA sequences consistent with genomic and multiple spliced transcripts as determined by reverse transcription in situ PCR. PCR-amplified viral nucleic acids were not detected in the epithelial of the prostate, epididymis, seminal vesicles, or penis in men with AIDS nor in any genital tract tissues from three boys who died of AIDS acquired in utero. The demonstration that HIV-1 selectively infects the spermatogonia and their progeny suggests that this may serve as a primary source of venereal spread of the virus. Concomitant destruction of these cells by HIV-1 may also explain the marked inhibition of spermatogenesis and severe atrophy that characterizes the testes in AIDS.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Jürgen C Becker, Mar 06, 2015
- SourceAvailable from: Elisabeth van Leeuwen[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) affects mostly men and women in their reproductive years. For those who have access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the course of HIV-1 infection has shifted from a lethal to a chronic disease. As a result of this, many patients with HIV-1 consider having offspring, as do other patients of reproductive age with chronic illnesses. This article summarizes the current knowledge on the presence of HIV in the male and female genital tract, the effects of HIV-1 infection and HAART on male and female fertility and the results of various assisted reproduction techniques (ART) in HIV-1-infected men and women who wish to have offspring.Human Reproduction Update 11/2006; 13(2):197-206. DOI:10.1093/humupd/dml052 · 8.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The first pregnancy achieved in a seronegative woman following in-vitro fecundation through intracytoplasmic sperm (ICSI) injection from a man with autoimmune deficiency syndrome (AIDS; HIV-1 carrier) is reported. The semen was prepared by PureSperm and swim-up techniques. Some of the motile spermatozoa obtained were used to detect the presence of HIV-1 using the polymerase chain reaction technique. HIV-1 in DNA or RNA form was not detected using this technique. The remaining spermatozoa were frozen. Ovarian stimulation in the woman was performed with long-protocol analogues and gonadotrophins. Thirteen mature oocytes were recovered, into which the thawed spermatozoa were microinjected. Nine embryos were obtained. Four were frozen, four transferred and one discarded. The woman became pregnant. Analyses for HIV-1 in the woman, performed in the first and third months of pregnancy, gave negative results. This case provides further experience with washed semen of sufficient quality for performing artificial insemination in HIV-1-serodiscordant couples (101 inseminations, 31 pregnancies, 28 deliveries, 37 babies, all healthy). In women with obstructed Fallopian tubes, or when the semen is not of sufficient quality for artificial insemination techniques to be performed, ICSI can be carried out using frozen, HIV-1-free semen.Human Reproduction 12/1998; 13(11):3247-9. DOI:10.1093/humrep/13.11.3247 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Data on the concentrations of didanosine (ddI) and tenofovir (TFV) in seminal plasma are sparse. Subtherapeutic drug concentrations within the lumen of the male genital tract may have implications for selection and transmission of drug-resistant HIV strains. On the other hand, sufficient penetration of these drugs into the male genital tract has potential toxic effects on the spermatozoa and their precursors. In the current study, the authors obtained paired semen and blood samples at variable time points after drug intake from 30 HIV-1-infected patients using a ddI (n = 15) or ddI + TFV (n = 15) containing an antiretroviral regimen. Didanosine and TFV concentrations were measured in seminal and blood plasma and semen quality was assessed. Both ddI and TFV penetrated well into seminal plasma. Whereas blood plasma ddI concentrations dropped to near or below the lower limit of quantification of 0.017 microg/mL 9 hours after drug intake, the ddI concentration in seminal plasma remained detectable during the whole dosing interval with a median of 0.20 and 0.21 microg/mL in the ddI and ddI + TFV groups, respectively. Tenofovir was detectable during the whole dosing interval in both blood and seminal plasma with a median concentration of 0.12 and 0.25 microg/mL, respectively, and a median seminal-to-blood-plasma ratio of 3.3. Semen quality was within the normal range according to the criteria of the World Health Organization, except for the percentage of progressively motile sperm, which was low in both groups of patients. The authors conclude that ddI and TFV penetrate well into seminal plasma and that the reduced sperm motility deserves further study.Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 11/2007; 29(5):566-70. DOI:10.1097/FTD.0b013e31811fef29 · 1.93 Impact Factor