HIV-1 nucleic acids localize to the spermatogonia and their progeny. A study by polymerase chain reaction in-situ hybridization. Am. J. Pathol. 144, 1142-8

Department of Pathology, SUNY at Stony Brook 11794-8691.
American Journal Of Pathology (Impact Factor: 4.6). 07/1994; 144(6):1142-8.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the histological distribution of in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified HIV-1 nucleic acids in the male genital tract to elucidate the mechanism of sexual transmission of AIDS. Viral DNA was detected in the testicular tissue of 11 of 12 men with HIV-1 infection using the PCR in situ hybridization technique. The amplified viral DNA localized to many spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and rare spermatids. Relatively few viral infected macrophages were noted, mostly in the prostate. The viral infection was activated given the presence of cDNA sequences consistent with genomic and multiple spliced transcripts as determined by reverse transcription in situ PCR. PCR-amplified viral nucleic acids were not detected in the epithelial of the prostate, epididymis, seminal vesicles, or penis in men with AIDS nor in any genital tract tissues from three boys who died of AIDS acquired in utero. The demonstration that HIV-1 selectively infects the spermatogonia and their progeny suggests that this may serve as a primary source of venereal spread of the virus. Concomitant destruction of these cells by HIV-1 may also explain the marked inhibition of spermatogenesis and severe atrophy that characterizes the testes in AIDS.

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Available from: Jürgen C Becker, Mar 06, 2015
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    • "A change of histones by protamine that occurs during spermatogenesis , allowing tight packaging of the DNA, but also inducing transcriptional inactivation of these cells, might explain this finding. However, it is important to recall the previous detection of proviral DNA in sperm cells from HIV- 1-infected men (Baccetti et al., 1998; Bagasra et al., 1994; Cardona-Maya et al., 2009; Nuovo et al., 1994 "
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    ABSTRACT: Leukocytes are considered to be the main source of HIV-1 infection in semen. However, HIV-1 interaction with spermatozoa has also been demonstrated, suggesting that both spermatozoa and leukocytes might play a role during sexual transmission of HIV-1. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if HIV-1 particles interact with sperm cells through the mannose receptor (MR), and then to determine the ability of "infected" sperm cells to transmit the virus to susceptible targets. The expression of classical HIV-1 receptor and co-receptors and the MR by sperm cells was determined by flow cytometry; the interaction in vitro between sperm and HIV-1 was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. Additionally, the in vitro interaction of sperm cells and HIV-1 was determined detecting viral nucleic acids by PCR. D-Mannose was used to block HIV-1-sperm cell interaction. Sperm cells preincubated with HIV-1 particles and activated mononuclear cells were co-cultured to determine viral transmission. The presence of viral RNA was detected in 28% of the samples in which sperm cells were preincubated with HIV-1 particles. Mannose was able to block interaction in 75% of the cases. Finally, we demonstrated that "infected" sperm cells were able to transmit the HIV-1 infection to susceptible targets. In conclusion, these results indicate that the MR is involved in sperm cell-HIV-1 interaction. Our results also suggest that sperm cells could be an important source of infection.
    Journal of Reproductive Immunology 12/2011; 92(1-2):1-7. DOI:10.1016/j.jri.2011.09.002 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    • "Since spermatozoa do not express CD4 molecules [3] [4], free virus and infected leukocytes were originally considered as the only source of infection during male to male/female sexual intercourse. More recently, it was suggested that spermatozoa were also responsible for horizontal transmission of HIV infection [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]. Indeed, in vitro fertilization procedures using isolated spermatozoa from HIV-positive men have resulted in seroconversion of a low percentage of the fertilized women [5] [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although very inefficient, sexual transmission of HIV-1 is responsible for more than 80% of infections worldwide. Yet, the presence of HIV in spermatozoa has been a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of HIV nucleic acids and the distribution of mannose receptors in sperm cells, and to determine the semen parameters and cytokine levels in ejaculates from HIV-positive patients. The presence of non-seminal cells in purified sperm was revealed by light microscopy, flow cytometry and RT-PCR. HIV nucleic acids were evaluated by nested PCR; the distributions of mannose receptors on the surface of the sperm and cytokine levels in ejaculates were determined by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry respectively. Sperm characteristics were determined by conventional methods. HIV DNA was detected in 69.2% of purified sperm from HIV-positive men; in contrast all purified sperm were negative for HIV RNA. The distribution of mannose receptors and cytokine levels in HIV-1-positive men were similar to uninfected individuals. Using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method, it was possible to determine that semen parameters of HIV-positive men exhibit different distributions compared to HIV-negative individuals. Finally, these results indicate that viral DNA is present in purified sperm from HIV-positive men and that HIV infection of spermatozoa could be associated with lower seminal parameters as demonstrated by the PCA method. The similar distribution of mannose receptors between infected and uninfected individuals suggests that sperm cells from infected individuals interact normally with oocytes.
    Current HIV research 08/2009; 7(4):418-24. DOI:10.2174/157016209788680570 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    • "Early studies showed evidence of HIV and SIV in immune cells infiltrating the epididymis, prostate and seminal vesicles of men (Da Silva et al., 1990; Pudney & Anderson, 1991; Nuovo et al., 1994) or macaques respectively (Miller et al., 1994) at the AIDS stage. But what happens during the early and asymptomatic stages of the disease has not been studied. "
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    ABSTRACT: Despite semen being the main vector of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dissemination worldwide, the origin of the virus in this bodily fluid remains unclear. It was recently shown that several organs of the male genital tract (MGT) are infected by HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and likely to contribute to semen viral load during the primary and chronic stages of the infection. These findings are important in helping answer the following questions: (i) does the MGT constitute a viral reservoir responsible for the persistence of virus release into the semen of a subset of HIV-infected men under antiretroviral therapy, who otherwise show an undetectable blood viral load? (ii) What is the aetiology of the semen abnormalities observed in asymptomatic HIV-infected men? (iii) What is the exact nature of the interactions between the spermatozoa, their testicular progenitors and HIV, an important issue in the context of assisted reproductive techniques proposed for HIV-seropositive (HIV+) men? Answers to these questions are crucial for the design of new therapeutic strategies aimed at eradicating the virus from the genital tract of HIV+ men--thus reducing its sexual transmission--and for improving the care of serodiscordant couples wishing to have children. This review summarizes the most recent literature on HIV infection of the male genital tract, discusses the above issues in light of the latest findings and highlights future directions of research.
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