Anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology of dysphagia.
ABSTRACT This is a review paper examining the pathogenesis of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Pharyngeal anatomy and physiology are discussed along with a detailed description of the neuronal architecture and function of the medullary swallowing center. The oropharyngeal swallow is then examined in biomechanical terms emphasizing that the swallow is comprised of several elements (velopharyngeal closure, upper esophageal sphincter opening, closure of the laryngeal vestibule, tongue loading, tongue pulsion and pharyngeal clearance) each of which can be compromised, causing dysphagia. The key modality for evaluating patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia is the videofluoroscopic swallowing study which is analyzed according to the efficacy with which these functional elements of the swallow are accomplished. Specific therapy can then be addressed toward correcting dysfunctional elements.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs), also known as fast melts, quick melts, fast disintegrating and orodispersible systems, have the unique property of disintegrating in the mouth in seconds without chewing and the need of water and are thus assumed to improve patient compliance. Conventional methods like direct compression, wet granulation, moulding, spray-drying, freeze-drying and sublimation were used to prepare ODTs. New advanced technologies like Orasolv®, Durasolv®, Wowtab®, Flashtab®, Zydis®, Flashdose®, Oraquick®, Lyoc®, Advatab®, Frosta®, Quick-Disc® and Nanomelt® have been introduced by some pharmaceutical companies for the production of ODTs. The main objective of this review is to give a comprehensive insight into conventional and recent technologies used for the preparation of ODTs.Acta Pharmaceutica 06/2011; 61(2):117-39. · 0.91 Impact Factor