[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to establish a correlation between the endemic level of tegumentary leishmaniasis in different regions of Brazil during 2002-2009 and the number of cases of mucosal or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The proportion of mucosal leishmaniasis was inversely correlated with prevalence of infection. In areas with a lower infection prevalence, the proportion of mucosal leishmaniasis increased (P < 0.05). The hypothesis of an Amazonian origin and dissemination through human migration is considered. Our results show that in regions with lower prevalence and endemically younger, the proportion of cases that evolve to the mucosal form is higher than in regions with higher prevalence and endemically older.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 06/2011; 84(6):901-5. · 2.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies in the recent years have advanced the knowledge of how host and parasite factors contribute to the pathogenesis of human tegumentary leishmaniasis. Polymorphism within populations of Leishmania from the same species has been documented; indicating that infection with different strains may lead to distinct clinical pictures and can also interfere in the response to treatment. Moreover, detection of parasite genetic tags for the precise identification of strains will improve diagnostics and therapy against leishmaniasis. On the host side, while a predominant Th1 type immune response is important to control parasite growth, it does not eradicate Leishmania and, in some cases, does not prevent parasite dissemination. Evidence has accumulated showing the participation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, as well as macrophages, in the pathology associated with L. braziliensis, L. guayanensis, and L. major infection. The discovery that a large percentage of individuals that are infected with Leishmania do not develop disease will help to understand how the host controls Leishmania infection. As these individuals have a weaker type 1 immune response than patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis, it is possible that control of parasite replication in these individuals is dependent, predominantly, on innate immunity, and studies addressing the ability of neutrophils, macrophages, and NK cells to kill Leishmania should be emphasized.
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