To elucidate the nature of the etiologic relationship between personality and major depression in women.
A longitudinal twin design in which twins completed a time 1 questionnaire and, 15 months later, were personally interviewed for the occurrence of major depression during the last year and completed a time 2-questionnaire. Both questionnaires contained short forms assessing neuroticism and extraversion.
1733 twins from female-female pairs ascertained from the population-based Virginia Twin Registry.
Extraversion was unrelated to lifetime or 1-year prevalence of major depression. Neuroticism was strongly related to lifetime prevalence of major depression and robustly predicted the prospective 1-year prevalence of major depression in those who, at time 1, denied previous depressive episodes. However, controlling for levels of neuroticism at time 1, levels of neuroticism at time 2 were moderately elevated in those who had had an episode of major depression between times 1 and 2 ("scar" effect) and substantially elevated in those experiencing an episode of major depression at time 2 ("state" effect). In those who developed major depression, levels of neuroticism did not predict time to onset. In the best-fit longitudinal twin model, the proportion of the observed correlation between neuroticism and the liability to major depression that is due to shared genetic risk factors was estimated at around 70%, that due to shared environmental risk factors at around 20%, and that due to a direct causal effect of major depression on neuroticism (via both "scar" and "state" effects) at around 10%. Approximately 55% of the genetic liability of major depression appeared to be shared with neuroticism, while 45% was unique to major depression.
In women, the relationship between neuroticism and the liability to major depression is substantial and largely the result of genetic factors that predispose to both neuroticism and major depression.
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"In addition to being predicted by personality characteristics, health-related characteristics have been shown to be predictive of personality as well. The kindling effect, for example, describes the occurrence of a first episode of depression as increasing an individual's level of Neuroticism, which in turn increases this individual's risk of suffering from subsequent episodes of depression (Kendler et al., 1993; Monroe & Harkness, 2005). Similarly, some studies have already pointed to longitudinal influences of subjective health and loneliness on changes in the disposition to experience positive and negative affect (Cacioppo et al., 2006, 2010; Huxhold et al., 2013; Qualter et al., 2010; Vanhalst et al., 2012), which are characteristic facets of the broader personality dimensions of Extraversion and Neuroticism , respectively (McCrae & Costa, 2008). "
"A specific personality profile, with high Neuroticism, typified adolescents at risk in this sample , as NEO-FFI scores differentiated at-risk adolescents from the other two groups but not resilient individuals from controls contrary to our expectations. Consistently, Neuroticism has been prospectively linked with risk for depression (Kendler et al. 1993) and other psychiatric disorders (Jylhä et al. 2010; Rosellini & Brown, 2011), and associated with functional activity of widespread brain regions (Canli, 2008; Wright et al. 2006). Here, lower levels of Neuroticism did not explain the association of resilience with higher FA in our sample. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resilience is the capacity of individuals to resist mental disorders despite exposure to stress. Little is known about its neural underpinnings. The putative variation of white-matter microstructure with resilience in adolescence, a critical period for brain maturation and onset of high-prevalence mental disorders, has not been assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Lower fractional anisotropy (FA) though, has been reported in the corpus callosum (CC), the brain's largest white-matter structure, in psychiatric and stress-related conditions. We hypothesized that higher FA in the CC would characterize stress-resilient adolescents.
Three groups of adolescents recruited from the community were compared: resilient with low risk of mental disorder despite high exposure to lifetime stress (n = 55), at-risk of mental disorder exposed to the same level of stress (n = 68), and controls (n = 123). Personality was assessed by the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Voxelwise statistics of DTI values in CC were obtained using tract-based spatial statistics. Regional projections were identified by probabilistic tractography.
Higher FA values were detected in the anterior CC of resilient compared to both non-resilient and control adolescents. FA values varied according to resilience capacity. Seed regional changes in anterior CC projected onto anterior cingulate and frontal cortex. Neuroticism and three other NEO-FFI factor scores differentiated non-resilient participants from the other two groups.
High FA was detected in resilient adolescents in an anterior CC region projecting to frontal areas subserving cognitive resources. Psychiatric risk was associated with personality characteristics. Resilience in adolescence may be related to white-matter microstructure.
Psychological Medicine 03/2015; 45(11):1-10. DOI:10.1017/S0033291715000239 · 5.94 Impact Factor
"region in women with more severe depressive symptoms and a lower frequency of allele ' s ' in women without climacteric symptoms ( Grochans et al . 2013 ) . The relationship between depression , extroversion and neuroticism has been analysed in many studies conducted in families of people suffering from depression ( Duggan et al . 1995 ) , twins ( Kendler et al . 1993 ) , non - clinical ( Farmer et al . 2002 ) and clinical groups ( Bienvenu et al . 2004 ; Cuijpers et al . 2005 ) and in general population ( Cox et al . 2004 ) . The study carried out in Finland showed that neuroticism was strongly related to the occurrence of anxiety and depressive symptoms , while introversion had moderate effects on "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between personality, the serotonin transporter (5HTT) and monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) polymorphisms and the severity of climacteric and depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women. The study involved 272 healthy postmenopausal women from Poland. This survey-based study was performed using the following: the Beck Depression Inventory for depressive symptoms, the Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index and the Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness-Five Factor Inventory for personality. A polymerase chain reaction was employed to identify the DNA polymorphisms. The women were aged 55.4 ± 5.5 years on average. Significant correlations were proved between the allele frequency of the 30-bp variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the MAO-A promoter region and the incidence of depressive symptoms in the women analysed (p ≤ 0.05), as well as between the severity of climacteric symptoms in the postmenopausal women and the allele frequency of the polymorphism in the 5HTT gene (the 5HTT 's' variant) (p ≤ 0.05). There was a significant correlation between the severity of climacteric and depressive symptoms (p < 0.001). (1) The severity of climacteric and depressive symptoms depends on personality traits. (2) Personality traits are biologically determined, and the level of their expression is associated with the 5HTT polymorphism. (3) Identification of homogeneous groups of women having predispositions to depressive and severe climacteric symptoms may help to implement early prevention programmes for this group of recipients.
Archives of Women s Mental Health 02/2015; 18(4). DOI:10.1007/s00737-015-0497-0 · 2.16 Impact Factor