Recall and selection bias in reporting past alcohol consumption among breast cancer cases.
ABSTRACT Recall and selection bias are well-recognized potential problems in case-control studies of alcohol and cancer, but few analyses have attempted to assess the direction and the magnitude of these potential biases. We thus examined alcohol consumption in relation to risk of breast cancer using dietary questionnaires administered both before and after the diagnosis of breast cancer in the Nurses' Health Study (United States). Among cohort members who completed a dietary questionnaire in 1986 and who were free of cancer, 616 were diagnosed with breast cancer during follow-up to December 1989. These cases and 1,277 controls (a random sample of cohort members who did not develop cancer up to 1990) then were sent another questionnaire inquiring about their diet in 1985. Four hundred and ninety-four cases (80.2 percent) and 999 controls (78.2 percent) responded to the second questionnaire. The analysis based on the prospective (1986) questionnaire demonstrated an elevated risk of breast cancer among women who drank 30 or more g of alcohol daily (about two drinks) relative to nondrinkers (odds ratio [OR] = 1.55, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-2.39). The analysis based on the retrospective questionnaire also indicated a similar but slightly attenuated elevation of risk of breast cancer among women who drank at least 30 g daily (OR = 1.42, CI = 0.85-2.40). In these data, bias due to selection and recall had only minor effects on reported intake of alcohol consumption.
SourceAvailable from: Masakazu Washio[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective: N-acetyltransferase-2 (NAT2) is involved in the metabolism of various environmental substances, both with and without carcinogenic potential. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic caffeine-rich beverages may be associated with markers of inflammation. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multifaceted inflammatory disease. We investigated the effects of alcoholic and non-alcoholic caffeine-rich beverages on risk of SLE and determined whether the effects were modified by NAT2 status. Methods: The NAT2 polymorphism was genotyped in 152 SLE cases and 427 healthy controls, all female and Japanese. We assessed effect modification by testing an interaction term for the NAT2 polymorphism and consumption of beverages. Results: Consumption of black tea (odds ratio (OR) = 1.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03 - 3.41) and coffee (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 0.95 - 2.61), but not green tea, was associated with an increased risk of SLE, while alcohol use (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.20 - 0.55) was associated with a decreased risk of SLE. There were significant interactions between the NAT2 polymorphism and either alcohol use (Pinteraction = 0.026) or consumption of black tea (Pinteraction = 0.048). Conclusion: The NAT2 polymorphism significantly modified the effects of alcohol use and black tea consumption on SLE, emphasizing the importance of incorporating genetic and metabolic information in studies on management of SLE. Additional studies are warranted to confirm the findings suggested in this study. © 2014 American College of Rheumatology.07/2014; 66(7). DOI:10.1002/acr.22282
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ABSTRACT: Background: Alcohol drinking is linked to the development of breast cancer. However, there is little knowledge about the impact of alcohol consumption on breast cancer risk among African women. Methods: We conducted a case-control study among 2,138 women with invasive breast cancer and 2,589 controls in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Uganda from 1998 to 2013. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on alcohol consumption, defined as consuming alcoholic beverages at least once a week for six months or more. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Among healthy controls, the overall alcohol consumption prevalence was 10.4%, and the prevalence in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Uganda were 5.0%, 34.6%, and 50.0%, respectively. Cases were more likely to have consumed alcohol (aOR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.33-1.97). Both past (aOR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.19-2.00) and current drinking (aOR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.30-2.23) were associated with breast cancer risk. A dose-response relationship was observed for duration of alcohol drinking (P-trend <0.001), with 10-year increase of drinking associated with a 54% increased risk (95% CI: 1.29-1.84). Conclusion: We found a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk, suggesting that this modifiable risk factor should be addressed in breast cancer prevention programs in Africa.PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(9):e106908. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0106908 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Consumption of alcoholic beverages is one of the single most important known and modifiable risk factor for human cancer. Among women, breast cancer is the most common cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Consumption of alcoholic beverages is causally associated with female breast cancer and the association shows a linear dose-response relationship. The role of heavy drinking has been long recognized and even a moderate intake is associated with an increased risk for breast cancer. The present review is an update of the current evidence on the association between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk. The aim is to gain further insight into this association and to improve our current understanding of the effects of the major modifying factors. Epidemiologic and experimental studies published since the most recent International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monograph on alcoholic beverages were identified in PubMed using a combination of keywords such as alcohol, breast cancer, polymorphisms, menopausal status. Cumulative lifetime consumption, drinking frequency, drinking patterns and timing of exposure each modulate the association between alcohol consumption and breast cancer. Hormonal status, genetic polymorphisms, and nutritional factors may interact with ethanol metabolism and further influence breast cancer risk. Better standardization among experimental and epidemiologic designs in assessing alcohol intake and timing of exposure may improve our understanding of the heterogeneity observed across studies, possibly allowing the quantification of the effects of occasional heavy drinking and the identification of a window of higher susceptibility to breast cancer development.American journal of preventive medicine 03/2014; 46(3 Suppl 1):S16-25. DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2013.10.031 · 4.24 Impact Factor