Structural and functional properties of a multi-enzyme complex from spinach chloroplasts. 2. Modulation of the kinetic properties of enzymes in the aggregated state.
ABSTRACT The carboxylase activity of free ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase has been compared to that of the five-enzyme complex present in chloroplasts. Kinetic results have shown that the V/active site is lower for the free enzyme than for the complex. Conversely the Km is smaller for the complex than for the free enzyme. This implies that the catalytic activity of the enzyme is enhanced when it is embedded in the complex. Under reducing conditions and in the presence of reduced thioredoxin, inactive oxidized phosphoribulokinase, free in solution or inserted in the multi-enzyme complex, becomes active. The kinetics of this activation process has been studied and shown to be exponential. The time constant of this exponential decreases, for the free enzyme, as thioredoxin concentration is increased. Alternatively, for the enzyme embedded in the complex, this time constant increases with thioredoxin concentration almost in a linear fashion. This implies that the complex is much more rapidly activated by reduced thioredoxin than is the free phosphoribulokinase. The variation of the amplitude of this activation process as a function of thioredoxin concentration is a hyperbola. The concentration of thioredoxin which results in half the asymptotic value of this hyperbola is smaller for the complex than for the free enzyme. A kinetic model has been proposed and the dynamic equations resulting from this model have been derived. They fit the experimental results exactly. From the variation of the amplitude of the activation process one may derive the binding constants of thioredoxin on either the oxidized enzyme or on a partly dithiothreitol-reduced enzyme (both of them free or inserted in the complex). In either case, the affinity of reduced thioredoxin is larger for the complex than for the free enzyme. The individual values of some of the rate constants have also been estimated from the variation of the time constants as a function of thioredoxin concentration. Taken together, these results show that at least two enzymes, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase and phosphoribulokinase, have quite different kinetic properties depending on whether they are in free solution or embedded in the multi-enzyme complex.
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ABSTRACT: Phosphoribulokinase is light-regulated via thioredoxin by reversible oxidation/reduction of sulfhydryl/disulfide groups. To identify the cysteinyl residues that are involved in regulation, the S-carboxymethyl labeling patterns of the fully reduced (active) and oxidized (inactive) forms of the enzyme were compared. Tryptic digests of the reduced, [14C]carboxymethylated enzyme contained four labeled peptides, all of which were purified and sequenced by Edman degradation. If the enzyme was oxidized by 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) prior to carboxymethylation and tryptic digestion, only two labeled peptides were observed, thereby revealing the identity of the regulatory cysteines as Cys-16 and Cys-55. The former was previously implicated as part of the nucleotide-binding domain of the active site (Porter, M.A., and Hartman, F.C. (1986) Biochemistry 25, 7314-7318), a conclusion reinforced by the present observation that the sequence around the Cys-16 is similar to a consensus sequence of ATP-binding sites from a number of proteins of diverse phylogenetic origin (Higgins, C.F., Hiles, I.D., Salmond, G.P.C., Gill, D.R., Downie, J.A., Evans, I.J., Holland, I.B., Gray, L., Buckel, S.D., Bell, A.W., and Hermondson, M. (1986) Nature 323, 448-450). The regulatory disulfide of phosphoribulokinase was found to be intrasubunit based on the stoichiometry of the oxidation and the failure to resolve oxidized and reduced enzyme by gel filtration under dissociation conditions.Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/1988; 263(1):123-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multienzyme complexes and multifunctional proteins may confer a kinetic advantage by channelling reaction intermediates between consecutive enzymes and reducing the transient time for the establishment of steady states. A general means for quantitatively assessing the contribution of channelling to the reduction of pool size and transient time is presented. Restrictions to the kinetic advantage are identified, and it is shown that no channelling advantage is obtained at high enzyme concentration or for enzymes which exhibit rapid-equilibrium kinetic behaviour.Biochemical Journal 01/1990; 264(2):605-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Throughout this article, vector quantities are denoted by use of bold type face (e.g. Ai, ri). The symbol ▿ denotes the “gradient” operator and δ(r−r′) the three-dimensional Dirac delta function (see Appendix 1). All other terms and symbols are defined as they occur.Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 02/1977; 32(2):103-91. · 2.91 Impact Factor