In defence of pedagogy: a critique of the notion of andragogy.
ABSTRACT Malcolm Knowles' theory of andragogy has gained increasing acceptance among nurse educators. Andragogy is espoused as a progressive educational theory, adopted as a theoretical underpinning for curricula and is even considered to be synonymous with a variety of teaching techniques and strategies such as 'problem-based' and 'self-directed' learning. This paper offers a critique of the notion of andragogy which maintains that the distinction created between andragogy and pedagogy is spurious and based upon assumptions which are untenable. It is argued that andragogy has been uncritically accepted within nursing education in much the same way that the nursing process and models of nursing were in their day. Finally, it is claimed that true pedagogy has far more radical, powerful and transformative possibilities for nursing education.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to establish mentorship practice in relation to the University of the West of Scotland pre-registration nursing students. Surveys were sent to 4,341 mentors, with a 41 per cent response rate. Results show that 18 per cent of participants had passed a failing student. A number of factors influenced mentors' decisions, which to some extent echo findings from previous research. However, this study provides new perspectives on failing to fail and considers the supportive role of universities in relation to mentors and students' practice placements. The knowledge derived from this study will help inform mentoring and mentorship practice to ensure only safe and competent practitioners gain entry to the register.Nursing management (Harrow, London, England: 1994) 09/2012; 19(5):16-21.
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ABSTRACT: This thesis explores the contemporary position of the university by examining specific elements within the current knowledge discourse. In presenting a view of the Knowledge Management (KM) movement within the discipline of Management Science this thesis supports the claims that the emerging form of knowledge within the contemporary knowledge discourse is one that relates to or is embedded within performative criteria. This draws on the work of Jean-Francois Lyotard and other ‘postmodern’ thinkers to help explain why we appear to be facing a crucial paradox, i.e. a context where multiplicity and diversity appears to be paramount and yet knowledge itself is conforming to a more stable and less volatile form. This principal paradox is explained with the use of a model of the current knowledge discourse. The contemporary position is presented as one of ‘residual reflection’, where the contestation within the discourse results in a multiplicity of knowledge claims. Inevitably the existing structure of legitimacy within the discourse assists in the validation of knowledge claims within this fluid contested environment where there has not emerged a consensus through which legitimacy can be appropriately assigned. The current knowledge discourse appears to lie within this period of residual reflection and the manifestation of this is outlined in relation to the university. In particular, the university aligns itself with the commodification of knowledge and adopts an uncritical stance in relation to the imposition of market forces within Higher Education. This supports the legitimisation of learning that is external to the university and validates such phenomena as Lifelong Learning, Experiential Learning and other forms of work-based learning. Although not entirely critical of these forms of learning, this thesis presents a cautionary view of these developments. Specifically, the discipline of education in considering the position of the university within the postmodern, often calls for it to adopt or take up the critical position, to critically engage with the trends that appear to be emerging. However, where the university can be seen to be contributing to its own loss of legitimacy there is a danger that the opportunity for the university to undertake this necessary critical engagement is itself being undermined. The university is potentially losing its opportunity to engage within the knowledge discourse in an effective way. In many respects it is contributing to its own loss of legitimacy and in doing so opens up the discourse to other elements which themselves seek legitimacy. In its open acceptance of the benefits to be gained from the uncritical acceptance of the commodification of knowledge the university is doing more than allowing different views to be aired and considered. The university is, in fact, appearing to commercially succeed at the expense of its own position within the knowledge discourse. This thesis does not attempt to support the existence of the university as an institution. In presenting the deteriorating position of the university there is accepted only a greater degree of contestation within the knowledge discourse. The need to reconcile this contestation is necessary but the outcome or the means of reconciliation are not considered here. However, the opportunity for the university to play a part in this reconciliation is not fully appreciated currently, specifically within the academic community. The many claims that the university is in crisis and facing ruin are countered by the presentation of a genuine need, essentially the need to critically engage with the dynamism being experienced within the knowledge discourse. There is assumed to be an opportunity here for the university, but this opportunity is itself being lost and the position of the university, at a time when it appears to be at its most successful, is being undermined. Importantly its own actions are contributing to its inevitable loss of legitimacy and in turn its right or opportunity to position itself as the critical arbiter within the knowledge discourse.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction The purpose of this study was to improve Indonesian nursing students' self-directed learning readiness. An educational intervention program (EIP) was developed, implemented and evaluated. Background to the study Many studies have documented the need for nursing students to be prepared for the rapidly changing and complex health care environment. Lifelong, self-directed learning (SDL) has been identified as an important ability for nursing graduates. However, no study has documented the needs of, or preparation required for, nursing students to function effectively in the rapidly changing health care system in Indonesia. The Indonesian diploma nursing schools still use a teacher-centred approach with little emphasis on a student-centred approach. Method The study used a mixed method involving both quantitative and qualitative design. Simple random sampling was used to select an intervention school and control school. The sample was 2nd year nursing students with 47 in the intervention group and 54 in the control group. A pre-post test questionnaire, using the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (Guglielmino, 1978), was used to collect quantitative data and focus group discussions (FGD) were used to collect qualitative data regarding students' perceptions of SDL prior to and at the completion of study. The intervention group received an EIP. The Staged Self-Directed Learning Model (Grow, 1991) and the Teacher Student Control Continuum (D'A Slevin & Lavery, 1991) were used as the organising framework. A self-learning module and learning plans were used as learning strategies to operationalise SDL concepts alongside teacher-centred methods. The control group received the existing teacher-centred methods. At the completion of the intervention, clinical instructors from both the intervention and control groups participated in FGD to explore their perceptions of students' activities during the EIP. Results For the majority of students, readiness for SDL was 'below average'. The mean for the Indonesian nursing students was significantly lower than established norms (Guglielmino, 1978). The introduction of SDL concepts through an EIP improved the level of readiness for SDL in the intervention group from 'below average' to 'average' compared to the control group who remained in the 'below average' range. Higher SDL readiness was reported by female students and students who completed the educational intervention. The FGD before the intervention revealed that students perceived SDL as a 'self-activity'. Perceptions of students in the intervention group changed during the EIP compared to students in the control group. Students in the intervention group viewed SDL as a 'process of learning'. Increased self-confidence, incremental learning, and having direction in learning were identified as benefits of SDL. Knowledge and skills in SDL, learning materials and communication were identified as important issues that needed to be improved. Clinical Instructors' perceptions of students' clinical activities confirmed that students in the intervention group were 'more active' compared to the control group who were 'still inactive'. Conclusion The study confirmed the expected effect of the EIP on students' SDL readiness. The EIP improved nursing students' readiness for SDL and had a positive impact on students' perceptions of SDL. Introducing the concept of SDL through the EIP was found acceptable by the sample and was deemed feasible to implement within the Indonesian nursing education system. The study has potential to make a significant contribution to nursing education in Indonesia by promoting lifelong learning and SDL in nursing students and in curricula through the development of innovative curricula and teaching and learning practices. The study also has potential wider benefit to nursing practice and global health practice.