Myofascial Trigger Points Show Spontaneous Needle EMG Activity

Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego.
Spine (Impact Factor: 2.3). 11/1993; 18(13):1803-7. DOI: 10.1097/00007632-199310000-00015
Source: PubMed


Monopolar needle electromyogram (EMG) was recorded simultaneously from trapezius myofascial trigger points (TrPs) and adjacent nontender fibers (non-TrPs) of the same muscle in normal subjects and in two patient groups, tension headache and fibromyalgia. Sustained spontaneous EMG activity was found in the 1-2 mm nidus of all TrPs, and was absent in non-TrPs. Mean EMG amplitude in the patient groups was significantly greater than in normals. The authors hypothesize that TrPs are caused by sympathetically activated intrafusal contractions.

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Available from: David Hubbard, Oct 08, 2014
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    • "In 1959, Travell reported that TrPs may have a unique electromyographic signature (Travell, 1959) and in 1966, Arroyo found continuous motor activity only in the region of TrPs (Arroyo, 1966). It is was not until 1993, however, that Hubbard and coworkers confirmed spontaneous electrical activity at TrPs (Hubbard and Berkoff, 1993). Previous efforts to identify such activity had failed mostly because of methodological issues or poor definitions of myofascial pain. "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this article is to critically analyze a recent publication by Quinter, Bove and Cohen, published in Rheumatology, about myofascial pain syndrome and trigger points (Quintner et al., 2014). The authors concluded that the leading trigger point hypothesis is flawed in reasoning and in science. They claimed to have refuted the trigger point hypothesis. The current paper demonstrates that the Quintner et al. paper is a biased review of the literature replete with unsupported opinions and accusations. In summary, Quintner et al. have not presented any convincing evidence to believe that the Integrated TrP Hypothesis should be laid to rest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 02/2015; 19(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jbmt.2015.01.009
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    • "Gerwin (2014) provided a comprehensive review of the definition, identification, causative factors, and differential diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome and the TrP as its central feature. Although objective diagnostic identification is becoming possible using vibration sonoelastography with ultrasound (Sikdar et al., 2009), magnetic resonance elastography (Chen et al., 2008), and electromyography (Hubbard and Berkoff, 1993), clinically the diagnosis of TrPs is made through a thorough history, accurate palpation, presence of referred pain, diminished range of motion, muscle inhibition, and autonomic changes. Additionally, the author provided clinical insights to palpation including manual compression of a TrP for a minimum of 5e10 s to induce referred pain to allow activation of interneurons for central sensitization. "
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    ABSTRACT: This article provides an up-to-date review of the most recent publications about myofascial pain, trigger points (TrPs) and other related topics. We have added some commentaries where indicated with supporting references. In the Basic Research section, we reviewed the work by Danish researchers about the influence of latent TrPs and a second study of the presence and distribution of both active and latent TrPs in whiplash-associated disorders. The section on Soft Tissue Approaches considered multiple studies and case reports of the efficacy of myofascial release (MFR), classic and deep muscle massage, fascial techniques, and connective tissue massage. Dry needling (DN) is becoming a common approach and we included multiple studies, reviews, and case reports, while the section on Injection Techniques features an article on TrP injections following mastectomy and several articles about the utilization of botulinum toxin. Lastly, we review several articles on modalities and other clinical approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 01/2015; 19(1):126-137. DOI:10.1016/j.jbmt.2014.11.006
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    • "Presumably this aspect of the parasympathetic efferent system is strengthened with HRVB training. This may be at play in inhibiting sympathetic output to myofascial trigger points (Hubbard and Berkoff, 1993; Gevirtz et al., 1996; Hubbard, 1998). The work of the Aziz group in London (Hobson et al., 2008) has also demonstrated that slow breathing almost immediately prevents esophageal pain thresholds from dropping dramatically when acid is introduced to the stomach. "
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years there has been substantial support for heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVB) as a treatment for a variety of disorders and for performance enhancement (Gevirtz, 2013). Since conditions as widely varied as asthma and depression seem to respond to this form of cardiorespiratory feedback training, the issue of possible mechanisms becomes more salient. The most supported possible mechanism is the strengthening of homeostasis in the baroreceptor (Vaschillo et al., 2002; Lehrer et al., 2003). Recently, the effect on the vagal afferent pathway to the frontal cortical areas has been proposed. In this article, we review these and other possible mechanisms that might explain the positive effects of HRVB.
    Frontiers in Psychology 07/2014; 5:756. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00756 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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