GLP-1 stimulates secretion of macromolecules from airways and relaxes pulmonary artery.
ABSTRACT Recent data revealed the existence of specific receptors for glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide (GLP-1) on rat lung membranes. Utilizing slide-mount autoradiography of fresh frozen lung tissue sections, we have localized binding sites for GLP-1 on mucous glands in the trachea and on vascular smooth muscle of the pulmonary artery. When tracheas were incubated in a modified Ussing chamber, the addition of GLP-1 to the submucosal side increased 35S-sulfate-labeled macromolecule secretion (191 +/- 12% above basal, P < 0.005). The optimal secretory response elicited by GLP-1 was approximately 23% of the maximal secretory response after a maximal acetylcholine stimulation. Other proglucagon-derived peptides such as glucagon, oxyntomodulin, and GLP-2 had no effect. In isolated rings of arteries, GLP-1 (10(-8) to 10(-5) M) induced a dose-dependent and time-reversible relaxation of preconstricted arteries. In a preparation with denuded epithelium, GLP-1 lost its effect. In conclusion, GLP-1 might represent another neuropeptide that acts as neurotransmitter of the peptidergic, nonadrenergic-noncholinergic nervous system that innervates the airways.
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ABSTRACT: Class B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important regulators of endocrine physiology, and peptide-based therapeutics targeting some of these receptors have proven effective at treating disorders such as hypercalcemia, osteoporosis, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). As next generation efforts attempt to develop novel non-peptide, orally available molecules for these GPCRs, new animal models expressing human receptor orthologs may be required because small molecule ligands make fewer receptor contacts, and thus, the impact of amino acid differences across species may be substantially greater. The objective of this report was to generate and characterize a new mouse model of the human glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (hGLP-1R), a class B GPCR for which established peptide therapeutics exist for the treatment of T2DM. hGLP-1R knock-in mice express the receptor from the murine Glp-1r locus. Glucose tolerance tests and gastric emptying studies show hGLP-1R mice and their wild-type littermates display similar physiological responses for glucose metabolism, insulin secretion, and gastric transit, and treatment with the GLP-1R agonist, exendin-4, elicits similar responses in both groups. Further, ex vivo assays show insulin secretion from humanized islets is glucose-dependent and enhanced by GLP-1R agonists. To enable additional utility, the targeting construct of the knock-in line was engineered to contain both flanking LoxP sites and a C-terminal FLAG epitope. Anti-FLAG affinity purification shows strong expression of hGLP-1R in islets, lung, and stomach. We crossed the hGLP-1R line with Rosa26Cre mice and generated global Glp-1r-/- animals. Immunohistochemistry of pancreas from humanized and knock-out mice identified a human GLP-1R-specific antibody that detects the GLP-1R in human pancreas as well as in the pancreas of hGLP-1r knock-in mice. This new hGLP-1R model will allow tissue-specific deletion of the GLP-1R, purification of potential GLP-1R partner proteins, and testing of novel therapeutic agents targeting the hGLP-1R.PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e93746. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0093746 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It has been reported that GLP-1 agonist exenatide (exendin-4) decreases blood pressure. The dose-dependent vasodilator effect of exendin-4 has previously been demonstrated, although the precise mechanism is not thoroughly described. Here we have aimed to provide in vitro evidence for the hypothesis that exenatide may decrease central (aortic) blood pressure involving three gasotransmitters, namely nitric oxide (NO) carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulphide (H2S). We determined the vasoactive effect of exenatide on isolated thoracic aortic rings of adult rats. Two millimetre-long vessel segments were placed in a wire myograph and preincubated with inhibitors of the enzymes producing the three gasotransmitters, with inhibitors of reactive oxygen species formation, prostaglandin synthesis, inhibitors of protein kinases, potassium channels or with an inhibitor of the Na+/Ca2+-exchanger. Exenatide caused dose-dependent relaxation of rat thoracic aorta, which was evoked via the GLP-1 receptor and was mediated mainly by H2S but also by NO and CO. Prostaglandins and superoxide free radical also play a part in the relaxation. Inhibition of soluble guanylyl cyclase significantly diminished vasorelaxation. We found that ATP-sensitive-, voltage-gated- and calcium-activated large-conductance potassium channels are also involved in the vasodilation, but that seemingly the inhibition of the KCNQ-type voltage-gated potassium channels resulted in the most remarkable decrease in the rate of vasorelaxation. Inhibition of the Na+/Ca2+-exchanger abolished most of the vasodilation. Exenatide induces vasodilation in rat thoracic aorta with the contribution of all three gasotransmitters. We provide in vitro evidence for the potential ability of exenatide to lower central (aortic) blood pressure, which could have relevant clinical importance.Cardiovascular Diabetology 04/2014; 13(1):69. DOI:10.1186/1475-2840-13-69 · 3.71 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.
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ABSTRACT: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone that regulates glucose homeostasis. Due to their direct stimulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells, GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are now important therapeutic options for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. To better understand the mechanisms that control the insulinotropic actions of GLP-1, affinity purification and mass spectrometry (AP-MS) were employed to uncover potential proteins that functionally interact with the GLP-1R. AP-MS performed on Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) or MIN6 beta cells, both expressing the human GLP-1R, revealed 99 proteins potentially associated with GLP-1R. Three novel GLP-1R interactors (PGRMC1, Rab5b, Rab5c) were further validated by co-immunoprecipitation/immunoblotting, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and immunofluorescence. Functional studies revealed that overexpression of PGRMC1, a novel cell surface receptor that associated with liganded GLP-1R, enhanced GLP-1 induced insulin secretion (GIIS) with the most robust effect. Knock-down of PGRMC1 in beta cells decreased GIIS, indicative of positive interaction with GLP-1R. To gain insight mechanistically, we demonstrated that the cell surface PGRMC1 ligand P4-BSA increased GIIS while its antagonist AG-205 decreased GIIS. It was then found that PGRMC1 increased GLP-1-induced cAMP accumulation and enhanced cell surface GLP-1R expression. PGRMC1 activation and GIIS induced by P4-BSA could be blocked by inhibiting adenylyl cyclase/EPAC signaling or the EGFR-PI3K signal transduction pathway. These data reveal a dual mechanism for PGRMC1-increased GIIS mediated through cAMP and EGFR signaling. In conclusion, we identified several novel GLP-1R interacting proteins. PGRMC1 expressed on the cell surface of beta cells was shown to interact with the activated GLP-1R to enhance the insulinotropic actions of GLP-1.Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 07/2014; 13(11). DOI:10.1074/mcp.M114.040196 · 7.25 Impact Factor