Normalization of auditory physiology by cigarette smoking in schizophrenic patients.
ABSTRACT Because many schizophrenic patients are heavy smokers, it has been suggested that nicotine normalizes some neuronal deficit involved in their illness. Schizophrenic subjects have various difficulties with maintenance of attention and selective processing of sensory information. One defect in sensory gating in schizophrenia has been characterized by recording auditory evoked potentials. Most normal subjects have a decrease in the evoked response to the second of two closely paired stimuli, whereas most schizophrenic subjects do not. The aim of this study was to determine whether smoking normalizes this deficit in auditory sensory gating in schizophrenia.
Changes in auditory sensory gating in response to smoking cigarettes were studied in 10 smokers without psychiatric illness and 10 schizophrenic smokers. Both groups were asked to abstain from smoking from 11:00 p.m. until 8:00 a.m. the next morning, when their auditory evoked responses to pairs of clicks were recorded. The ability to gate sensory information is reflected in a decrease in the P50 wave amplitude in response to the second of the two stimuli. After baseline recordings, the subjects smoked as much as they wished, and then two postsmoking recordings were performed.
The schizophrenic patients had a marked but brief improvement in P50 auditory gating immediately after smoking, whereas P50 gating for the normal smokers was slightly impaired.
This study suggests that cigarette smoking can transiently normalize the impairment of auditory sensory gating in schizophrenic patients.
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ABSTRACT: In schizophrenia, perceptual inundation related to sensory gating deficit can be evaluated "off-line" with the sensory gating inventory (SGI) and "on-line" during listening tests. However, no study investigated the relation between "off-line evaluation" and "on-line evaluation". The present study investigates this relationship. A sound corpus of 36 realistic environmental auditory scenes was obtained from a 3D immersive synthesizer. Twenty schizophrenic patients and twenty healthy subjects completed the SGI and evaluated the feeling of "inundation" from 1 ("null") to 5 ("maximum") for each auditory scene. Sensory gating deficit was evaluated in half of each population group with P50 suppression electrophysiological measure. Evaluation of inundation during sound listening was significantly higher in schizophrenia (3.25) compared to the control group (2.40, P<.001). The evaluation of inundation during the listening test correlated significantly with the perceptual modulation (n=20, rho=.52, P=.029) and the over-inclusion dimensions (n=20, rho=.59, P=.01) of the SGI in schizophrenic patients and with the P50 suppression for the entire group of controls and patients who performed ERP recordings (n=20, rho=-.49, P=.027). An evaluation of the external validity of the SGI was obtained through listening tests. The ability to control acoustic parameters of each of the realistic immersive environmental auditory scenes might in future research make it possible to identify acoustic triggers related to perceptual inundation in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.European Psychiatry 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2015.01.005 · 3.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Smoking prevalence in schizophrenia is significantly elevated relative to other clinical and to non-clinical groups. The cognitive self-medication hypothesis attributes this to the beneficial effects of nicotine on illness-related cognitive deficits. Significant effects of nicotine have been observed on visual spatial working memory (VSWM), sustained attention (Continuous Performance Test — Identical Pairs; CPT-IP) and prepulse inhibition (PPI). It remains unclear whether these neurophysiological and neurocognitive effects of nicotine influence self-reported smoking motivation.01/2015; 32(1). DOI:10.1016/j.scog.2014.12.001
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ABSTRACT: In daily life, adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report abnormal perceptual experiences that can be related to sensory gating deficit. This study investigated and compared P50 suppression (a neurophysiological measure of sensory gating) and perceptual abnormalities related to sensory gating deficit in ADHD and schizophrenias patients. Three groups were compared: 24 adults with ADHD, 24 patients with schizophrenia and 24 healthy subjects. The Sensory Gating Inventory (SGI), a validated self-report questionnaire, was used to measure perceptual abnormalities related to sensory gating deficit. P50 suppression was measured by P50 amplitude changes in a dual-click conditioning-testing auditory event-related potential procedure. Adults with ADHD had significantly higher scores on the SGI and significantly lower P50 suppression than healthy subjects. These deficits were similar to those found in patients with schizophrenia. A correlation was found between both the SGI and P50 suppression data in adults with ADHD and patients with schizophrenia. The findings confirm previous results found in patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, adults with ADHD, similar to patients with schizophrenia, had abnormal P50 suppression and reported being flooded with sensory stimuli. Abnormal neurophysiologic responses to repetitive stimuli gave rise to clinically abnormal perceptions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.Biological Psychology 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2015.03.002 · 3.47 Impact Factor