Patterns of psychiatric comorbidity, cognition, and psychosocial functioning in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
ABSTRACT Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common disorder of childhood, its status as a disorder in adults is not clear. The authors reasoned that if the adult diagnosis of the disorder is a valid clinical entity, it should be similar to the childhood disorder with regard to patterns of psychiatric and cognitive findings.
Eighty-four adults with a clinical diagnosis of childhood-onset attention deficit hyperactivity disorder confirmed by structured interview who were referred for treatment were studied. Findings were compared with those from a preexisting study group of referred children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, nonreferred adult relatives of those children who also had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and adults without the disorder who were relatives of normal children. Subjects were evaluated with a comprehensive battery of psychiatric, cognitive, and psychosocial assessments.
The referred and nonreferred adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were similar to one another but more disturbed and impaired than the comparison subjects without the disorder. The pattern of psychopathology, cognition, and functioning among the adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder approximated the findings for children with the disorder.
These results show that referred and nonreferred adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have a pattern of demographic, psychosocial, psychiatric, and cognitive features that mirrors well-documented findings among children with the disorder. These findings further support the validity of the diagnosis for adults.
- SourceAvailable from: Marieke Michielsen[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine the associations between ADHD and social functioning and participation among older adults. Method: Data were used from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA). In 2008/2009, respondents were asked about social functioning and participation. A diagnostic interview to diagnose ADHD was administered among a subsample (N = 231, age 60-94 years). ADHD diagnosis and level of ADHD symptoms were assessed. Results: ADHD diagnosis was associated with being divorced/never married, having less family members in their network, and emotional loneliness. Level of ADHD symptoms was associated with more emotional support given, emotional and social loneliness, greater recreational social participation, and lower income level. Conclusion: This study shows that ADHD in old age is related to being divorced/never married and loneliness but not to work participation. Psycho geriatric practices should direct their attention to loneliness when treating ADHD. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX).Journal of Attention Disorders 12/2013; · 2.16 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly known to occur during childhood, characterized by excessive inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity as well as lack of emotional self-control and motivation. The prevalence of adult ADHD in the general population is estimated to be between 2-5%. The aim of this review is to provide an overview regarding current controversies related to ADHD within the adult population. The concept of ADHD in adults has been questioned and criticized by professionals over the last years. Overall, adult ADHD is well evidenced based on epidemiological data, genetic data, neuroimaging, psychosocial impairment and treatment effectiveness. Although, research within this field has been significantly improved, suggestions for future research are provided, in order to be able to clarify the remaining questions regarding this disorder throughout adulthood. One of the most important changes to be made in the near future should be to increase educational training on ADHD in adults.Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 04/2014; · 2.96 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective: The CAT (Comorbilidad en Adultos con TDAH) study aimed to quantify and characterize the psychiatric comorbidity at the time of diagnosis of ADHD in adult outpatients. Method: Cross-sectional, multicenter, observational register of adults with ADHD diagnosed for the first time. Results: In this large sample of adult ADHD (n = 367), psychiatric comorbidities were present in 66.2% of the sample, and were more prevalent in males and in the hyperactive-impulsive and combined subtypes. The most common comorbidities were substance use disorders (39.2%), anxiety disorders (23%), and mood disorders (18.1%). In all, 88.8% patients were prescribed pharmacological treatment for ADHD (in 93.4% of cases, modified release methylphenidate capsules 50:50). Conclusion: A high proportion of psychiatric comorbidity was observed when adult outpatients received a first-time diagnosis of ADHD. The systematic registering of patients and comorbidities in clinical practice may help to better understand and manage the prognostic determinants in adult ADHD. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX).Journal of Attention Disorders 01/2014; · 2.16 Impact Factor