Comparison of the course to end-stage renal disease of type 1 (insulin-dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic nephropathy.
ABSTRACT Is the course leading to diabetic end-stage renal disease similar for Type 1 (insulin-dependent) and Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus? We identified all diabetic end-stage renal disease patients starting renal replacement therapy from 1989 to 1991 in two urban counties in Texas. Three ethnic/racial groups were enrolled: Mexican Americans, non-Hispanic Whites, African Americans. Patients were interviewed and their medical records, both inpatient and out-patient, were abstracted for relevant diagnostic and therapeutic information. We attempted to obtain records as far back as the onset of diabetes or hypertension and from all physicians who had cared for the patient. An historical algorithm was used to determine diabetic type. Of the patients enrolled, 91 were Type 1 and 438 were Type 2 diabetic patients. Type 1 diabetic patients had higher mean glucose levels in the first 10 years of diabetes (16.3 vs 11.4 mmol/l) but lower systolic blood pressures (148 vs 157 mmHg). The duration of diabetes prior to end-stage renal disease was longer for Type 1 than Type 2 patients (22 vs 17 years). Type 1 diabetic patients were more likely to have other microvascular complications (retinopathy, neuropathy, gastroparesis), less likely to have coronary disease (myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure), and had similar rates of stroke and vascular surgery procedures (carotid endarterectomy, coronary artery bypass surgery, aortofemoral bypass). Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients were just as likely to have a first degree relative with hypertension (60.5 vs 65.5%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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ABSTRACT: The risk and predictors of post-kidney transplantation myocardial infarction (PTMI) are not well described. Registry data collected by the United States Renal Data System were used to investigate retrospectively PTMI among adult first renal allograft recipients who received a transplant in 1995 to 2000 and had Medicare as the primary payer. PTMI events were ascertained from billing and death records, and participants were followed for up to 3 yr after transplant or until the end of observation (December 31, 2000). Extended Cox's hazards analysis was used to identify independent clinical correlates of PTMI (hazard ratio [HR]) and to examine PTMI as an outcomes predictor. Among 35,847 eligible participants, the cumulative incidence of PTMI was 4.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1 to 4.5%), 5.6% (95% CI, 5.3 to 5.8%), and 11.1% (95% CI, 10.7 to 11.5%) at 6, 12, and 36 mo, respectively. Risk factors for PTMI included older recipient age, pretransplantation comorbidities (diabetes, angina, peripheral vascular disease, and MI), transplantation from older donors and deceased donors, and delayed graft function. Women, blacks, Hispanics, and employed recipients experienced reduced risk. The hazard of PTMI rose after a diagnosis of posttransplantation diabetes (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.35 to 1.88) and markedly increased after graft failure (HR, 2.78; 95% CI, 2.41 to 3.19). In separate analyses, PTMI predicted death-censored graft failure (HR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.63 to 2.20) and strongly predicted death in a manner that declined with time after PTMI. Risk factors for PTMI include potentially modifiable posttransplantation complications. Because PTMI in turn predicts graft failure and death, reducing the risk for PTMI may improve outcomes after kidney transplantation.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 03/2005; 16(2):496-506. · 9.66 Impact Factor
Article: Main risk factors for nephropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus are plasma cholesterol levels, mean blood pressure, and hyperglycemia.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The control of hyperglycemia is of major importance in the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, there is no consensus about the required degree of metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and about the role of hyperglycemia in diabetic nephropathy and in the development of atherosclerosis in relation to other risk factors. A prospective, long-term follow-up study was conducted on 574 patients, aged 40 to 60 years, with recent onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients were initially normotensive and had normal renal function and a normal urinary albumin excretion rate (<30 mg/24 h). The patients were followed up for 2 to 9 years (mean +/- SD, 7.8 +/- 0.9 years). Levels of hemoglobin A1c and plasma lipids, mean blood pressure, and body mass index (calculated as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) were determined periodically. Cigarette smoking and socioeconomic status were recorded. Renal status was evaluated by the logarithm of the final urinary albumin excretion rate and by the decline in reciprocal creatinine values. Definite clinical events including death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, congestive heart failure, and peripheral vascular disease were recorded. At the end of the study the urinary albumin excretion rate remained normal (<30 mg/24 h) in 373 patients (65%), 111 (19%) had microalbuminuria (30-300 mg/24 h), and 90 (16%) had overt albuminuria (>300 mg/24 h). Logistic regression models demonstrated that the correlation between hemoglobin A1c levels and the risk of albuminuria is exponential. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that levels of total cholesterol, mean blood pressure, and hemoglobin A1c were the main factors associated with the decrease in renal function and with the increase in albuminuria. The combination of values higher than the 50th percentile of all 3 factors defined a high-risk patient population. These high-risk patients had an odds ratio of 43 (95% confidence interval, 25-106) for microalbuminuria and 15 (95% confidence interval, 9-25) for clinical events related to arteriosclerosis compared with the rest of the group. Low levels of high-density lipoprotein, body mass index, cigarette smoking, low socioeconomic status, and male sex were all significantly associated with diabetic nephropathy, as well as with the manifestations of arteriosclerosis. The combination of blood pressure values in the high-normal range with moderately elevated levels of total cholesterol and hemoglobin A1c defines a high-risk group for the progression to diabetic nephropathy and for clinical events related to arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Archives of Internal Medicine 05/1998; 158(9):998-1004. · 11.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Under semiambulatory conditions, 85 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes of short duration (excluding patients with islet cell antibodies or maturity onset diabetes of the young) were admitted to a self-control training program and were examined in this study. A comprehensive renal assessment was performed, including evaluation of albumin excretion rate (AER), renal hemodynamics, blood pressure (BP) profile, and indicators of genetic risk. AER > or = 30 mg/24 h was found in 13 (15%) of patients; in two of these patients, AER was > or = 300 mg/24 h. By logistic regression, high HbA1, current smoking, and BP parameters were significantly correlated with an increased risk of microalbuminuria (MA). In a multiple linear regression model, accounting for 57% of total variance, HbA1, ERPF, and current smoking were significantly correlated with AER. Median GFR (Cin(inulin clearance) 136 mL/min per 1.73m2; range, 94 to 194) and ERPF (Cpah(para-aminohippuric acid clearance) 733; range, 451 to 1328) were significantly higher in patients than in control subjects (upper 95th percentile, 131 and 706 mL/min per 1.73m2, respectively). In a multiple linear regression model, explaining 27% of total variance, age, AER, gender, and fasting blood glucose were significantly correlated to GFR. According to the criteria of average daytime BP > or = 135/85 mm Hg or 24-h BP > or = 130/80 mm Hg, 60% of patients were hypertensive (HT). Sixty-one percent of all patients (including 50% of the untreated normotensive patients) were "nondippers", i.e., < 15% nighttime decrease of mean arterial pressure. Either HT or nondipping was found in 79% of all patients, so that only 21% had a completely normal blood pressure profile. Ninety-four percent of untreated hypertensive patients had no MA. First-degree relatives of patients with MA compared with patients without MA had more frequent cardiovascular events (69% versus 31%). The risk of MA in diabetic patients with positive family history was amplified by poor glycemic control. MA, but not hypertension, was marginally related to K(m) of Na+/Li+ countertransport. It was concluded that (1) microalbuminuria is found in 15% of patients newly presenting with Type 2 diabetes; (2) a high proportion of patients exhibit hyperfiltration; (3) according to ambulatory BP only, 21% of patients have a completely normal circadian BP profile; (4) a family history of cardiovascular events interacts with glycemic control to increase the risk of MA.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 12/1996; 7(12):2627-35. · 9.66 Impact Factor