Effects of genetic hypertension and nutritional anaemia on ventricular remodelling and myocardial damage in rats.
ABSTRACT In order to determine whether alterations in cardiac function and structure occur early in life in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and whether the addition of a volume load would affect myocardial growth and haemodynamic performance, SHR were exposed to an iron and copper deficient diet for 12 weeks (SHR-A) and compared with untreated SHR and Wistar Kyoto controls (WKY).
Systolic arterial blood pressure increased in SHR, whereas nutritional anaemia prevented the rise of blood pressure in SHR-A. The diet employed provoked a severe hypochromic microcytic anaemia with a marked reduction in blood viscosity and increased volume load on the heart in SHR-A. Genetically determined hypertension alone induced a 16% increase in left ventricular weight and an increase in left ventricular peak systolic pressure (LVPSP) and +dP/dt. The superimposition of anaemia resulted in a 43% expansion in left ventricular weight with a decrease in LVPSP and +dP/dt, and an increase in left ventricular end diastolic pressure. Wall thickening and a preservation of chamber volume occurred in SHR, while SHR-A had a degree of ventricular dilatation which exceeded the extent of wall thickening. However, genetic hypertension was accompanied by myocardial tissue injury which was fully prevented by the addition of nutritional anaemia. Moreover, the capillary volume was decreased in SHR and increased in SHR-A.
Genetically determined hypertension in combination with anaemia results in eccentric ventricular hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction in spite of an increase in capillary luminal volume and limited structural damage.