Epidemiology of Pediatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in the United States
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia 30333.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 4.38). 11/1993; 693(s400):4-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1993.tb26251.x
HIV infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. Providers of health care to children need to be aware of the problem and the characteristics of the most affected populations. Early diagnosis of HIV infection is critical for initiating appropriate antiviral therapy and prophylactic treatment for opportunistic infections. Attending to the myriad of social problems these families face is equally important for providing an optimal chance for prolonged survival and a reasonably high quality of life.
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ABSTRACT: Dry and evaporative heat losses of clothed people are highly affected by the air exchange between the clothing microclimate and the environment. This air exchange, or clothing ventilation, is highly affected by the air permeability of the fabric materials as well as the clothing design. To examine the effect of the air permeability of fabric on clothing ventilation, the ventilation rate of three suits with identical design but with different air permeability (air resistance: 0.3 and 20.5 kPa·s−1·m−1, and impermeable) was determined for subjects under the following conditions: standing still or walking, both in still air and in air moving at 1 m s−1. In addition tests were performed with the suit's openings at neck and wrist cuffs both opened and closed, under the same conditions, to determine the effect of the openings on ventilation. The microclimate ventilation was significantly higher in the more permeable suit compared with the less permeable ones when standing with no wind and when walking with wind. The air permeability of the two permeable suits increased ventilation significantly when walking with no wind and when standing with wind. These increases in ventilation ranged from 30 to 90 l min−1 and corresponded to the level of clothing ventilation required to remove sweat produced as a result of light work. Compared to the suits with the openings tightened, the suits with the collars and cuffs open showed greater ventilation, but this increase in ventilation made a smaller difference as the air permeability of the fabric increased. These data imply that the air permeability of fabric can induce the proper dry and evaporative heat loss for keeping comfortable under light-work conditions, provided that clothing apertures are considered as a combined factor.
- Biomedical Research Reports 01/1998; 1:327-363. DOI:10.1016/S1874-5326(07)80035-4
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ABSTRACT: Pediatric HIV infection is characterized by a progressive decline in CD4 T lymphocytes and faster disease progression than is typically seen in adults. Apoptosis, possibly mediated through the CD95 antigen, has been proposed as a mechanism for cell loss which eventually leads to immune dysfunction. In this study of peripheral blood lymphocytes from HIV-infected children, classified according to CDC immunologic categories, we found that the percentage of CD4 and CD8 T cells expressing CD95 and the percentage of lymphocytes undergoing apoptosis were increased in children with HIV infection and were greater in children from immunologic Category III as compared to those in Category I. Most striking was our observation that an increased percentage of CD95-positive cells appeared as early as 3 months of age, at a time when these children did not have elevated levels of apoptosis. These data demonstrate early upregulation of CD95 expression in HIV-infected infants, an abberation which may have profound implications for the pathogenesis of perinatally acquired HIV disease.Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology 05/1998; 87(1):33-41. DOI:10.1006/clin.1997.4496
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