SPECT imaging in psychiatry: introduction and overview. J. Clin. Psychiatry 54 (Suppl. 11), 3-5
Clinical Brain Disorders Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, St. Elizabeth's, Washington, DC 20032.The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 5.5). 12/1993; 54 Suppl:3-5.
Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) use advanced computer image construction techniques to illustrate regional cerebral function, metabolism, and chemistry. Although the resolution of PET is higher than that of SPECT, and the technical development of SPECT has lagged behind that of PET, SPECT has recently enjoyed increasingly widespread use, particularly because its costs and technology are within the reach of all clinical nuclear medicine facilities. SPECT imaging agents have greater half-lives than those used with PET, thereby permitting longer and more detailed neurochemistry study than is possible with PET. The research value of both methods has unique potential compared with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which traditionally have provided a static image of the brain's structure or anatomy.
Chapter: The Dopamine Receptors[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Other chapters in this volume document the explosive recent advances in the genetic, neuroanatomical, and molecular pharmacological understanding of both the traditional and most prevalent D1* and D2L dopamine (DA) receptors and their recently discovered subtypes, D2S, D3, D4, and D5(1–4). These advances promise to yield important contributions to clinical medicine. The localization of the genes for each of the identified DA receptors to specific regions of human chromosomes has stimulated many studies seeking evidence of genetic linkage in specific clinical conditions, particularly psychiatric and neurological disorders. There is also much progress in the development of DA receptor type-selective radioligands for application in postmortem neuropathological analyses and for positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain for clinical applications. Finally, the discovery of the novel DA receptor types, and of apparently selective localization of types D3 and D4 to limbic or other nonextrapyramidal regions of forebrain, has stimulated a vigorous search for small-molecule ligands selective for these targets as potential psychotropic medicinal agents.The Dopamine Receptors, 01/1997: pages 457-498; , ISBN: 978-1-4757-2637-4
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ABSTRACT: The last decade saw a rapid development of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) from a tool to assess cerebral blood flow to the study of specific neurotransmitter systems. Because of the relatively long half-life of SPECT radioisotopes, it is practical to measure the availability of neuroreceptors and transporters in conditions approaching equilibrium. The cost-efficiency of SPECT allowed studies in relatively large samples of patients with various neuropsychiatric disorders. We have applied this approach in studies of dopaminergic, serotonergic, and muscarinergic neurotransmission in patients with dementia, extrapyramidal disorders, schizophrenia, and alcoholism. No simple associations were observed between a single defect in one neurotransmitter system and a certain neuropsychiatric disease. Instead, complex dysfunction of several neurotransmitter systems in multiple, partially connected brain circuits have been implicated. Treatment effects also have been characterized. Microdialysis and neurotransmitter depletion studies showed that most radioligands and endogenous neurotransmitters compete for binding at receptors and transporters. Future research directions include the assessment of endogenous neurotransmitter concentrations measured by depletion studies and of genetic effects on neuroreceptor and transporter expression.Nuclear Medicine and Biology 11/2000; 27(7):677-82. DOI:10.1016/S0969-8051(00)00135-9 · 2.41 Impact Factor
- Developmental Neurorehabilitation 01/2001; 4(2):57-70. DOI:10.1080/13638490110039967 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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