Low bone mineral density at axial and appendicular sites in amenorrheic athletes.

Musculoskeletal Research Laboratory, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Palo Alto, CA 94304.
Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise (Impact Factor: 4.46). 12/1993; 25(11):1197-202. DOI: 10.1249/00005768-199311000-00001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Amenorrheic athletes have low axial bone-mineral density (BMD, We compared 12 amenorrheic and 9 eumenorrheic women athletes to determine whether athletes with amenorrhea have lower BMD in other skeletal regions, including weight-bearing lower limbs. BMD was measured by dual energy x-ray and single photon absorptiometry. Both groups had similar age, body mass, and exercise quantity. Women with amenorrhea missed 86.3 +/- 58.3 menstrual periods since menarche. BMD was lower in the amenorrheic vs eumenorrheic subjects for the lumbar spine (0.928 +/- 0.056 vs 1.050 +/- 0.110, P < 0.005), whole body (1.032 +/- 0.05 vs 1.09 +/- 0.06, P < 0.05), most regions of the whole body (P < 0.05-0.001), all areas of the proximal femur (P < 0.005), and at the femoral mid-shaft (1.333 +/- 0.109 vs 1.491 +/- 0.088, P < 0.005). No significant differences were detected at the mid-radius and tibial shaft. The best predictors of BMD were years of regular menstruation for lumbar spine; and years of amenorrhea for hip, femoral mid-shaft, and whole body. We conclude that low BMD in athletes with amenorrhea is not limited to the axial skeleton but is also present in other regions including appendicular weight-bearing bones.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The benefits of exercise are widely recognized, however physically active women can develop exercise associated menstrual cycle disturbances such as amenorrhea (i.e., estrogen deficiency) secondary to a chronic energy deficiency. To assess the effects of exercise status and estrogen deficiency on osteoprotegerin (OPG) and its relationship to bone resorption in premenopausal exercising women. Cross-sectional study of serum OPG, urinary c-telopeptides (uCTX), urinary estrone 3-glucuronide (E1G), urinary pregnanediol 3-glucuronide (PdG) and bone mineral density (BMD) measured on multiple occasions in 67 women. Volunteers were retrospectively grouped: 1) sedentary menstruating group (SedMen n=8), 2) exercising menstruating group (ExMen, n=36), and 3) exercising amenorrheic group (ExAmen, n=23). One-way ANOVAs were performed, and LSD post-hoc tests were performed when differences were detected. Subjects were similar with respect to age (24.2+/-1.0 years), weight (57.8+/-1.7 kg), and height (164.3+/-1.3 cm) (p>0.05). ExMen and ExAmen groups were more aerobically fit (p=0.003) and had less body fat (p=0.002) than the SedMen group. Resting energy expenditure/fat free mass was lowest (p=0.001) in the ExAmen groups. Mean E1G across the measurement period (p<0.001) and overall E1G exposure as assessed by E1G area under the curve (AUC) (p<0.001) were lower in the ExAmen group vs. the SedMen and ExMen groups. U-CTX-I was elevated (p=0.033) in the ExAmen group (281.8+/-40.3 microg/L/mmCr), compared with the SedMen and ExMen groups (184.5+/-22.4, 197.2+/-14.7 microg/L/mmCr, respectively). OPG was suppressed (p=0.005) in the ExAmen group (4.6+/-0.2 pmol/L) vs. ExMen group (5.2+/-0.2 pmol/L), and OPG was lower in the SedMen group (4.1+/-0.3 pmol/L) compared with the ExMen group. Findings were translated to BMD; the ExAmen group had suppressed total body BMD (p=0.014) and L2-L4 BMD (p=0.015) vs. the ExMen group. Our results suggest that OPG responds to the bone loading effect of exercise, and that suppressed OPG may play a role in the etiology of increased bone resorption observed in exercising women with chronic estrogen deficiency secondary to hypothalamic amenorrhea.
    Bone 09/2008; 44(1):137-44. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2008.09.008 · 4.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare female runners with a history of stress fractures to matched runners who have no history of stress fractures to determine if differences existed in adolescent dairy intake, current dietary calcium intake, total energy, bone mineral density, and menstrual irregularities. Methods: 27 female runners (aged 18-40) who had at least one stress fracture that had been diagnosed by a doctor were matched to a control sample of 32 female runners who were similar in age, weight, and fat free mass (FFM). Subjects visited the lab in the late follicular phase of their menstrual cycle and consented to a fasting blood draw for assessment of serum estradiol, serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-(OH)D). Bone measurements were performed by dual-energy x-ray absorptionmetry (DXA). Subjects answered a questionnaire on stress fracture history, training, menstrual status, and lifetime dairy intake, and they also completed a 3-day food record. Results: Subjects did not differ in age, weight, height, FFM, body mass index, or training volume. Menstrual history and current menstrual characteristics were not significantly different between groups, nor were bone measurements at any sites. A greater number of stress fracture subjects were using calcium and/or vitamin D supplements compared to control subjects (p
  • Source
    Evidence-based Sports Medicine, Second Edition, 11/2007: pages 281 - 300; , ISBN: 9780470988732