A day-night rhythm of immune activity during scale allograft rejection in the gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis
ABSTRACT The circadian variation of scale allograft rejection was studied in teleost fish maintained on 12-h daily photoperiods (LD 12:12). Immune activity, measured by melanophore breakdown, was two to three times greater during the dark than during the light whether scale allografts were transplanted at light onset or light offset. Because rejection occurred predominantly at night, survival times of both primary and secondary allografts were about 0.4 days longer when the transplants were made at light onset. Immune activity undergoes a robust daily variation in a teleost fish.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The influence of environmental stimuli on a daily rhythm of immune activity during scale allograft rejection was investigated in gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis. Although melanophore destruction in the grafts is largely restricted to the scotophases in killifish held on 12 h daily photoperiods (LD 12:12), timed daily netting (tank-transfer "stress"), thermoperiods (from 20 degrees to 30 degrees C for 4 or 12 h), and feeding altered the expression of this rhythm. Melanophore breakdown peaked 0-12 h after netting or thermoperiod onset and 12-24 h after feeding, whether the fish were exposed to these nonphotic daily stimuli at the onset or offset of 12-h photoperiods. In fish held under continuous light and pretreated with these daily stimuli, 24-h immune activity rhythms persisted in the altered phases for several days after the daily treatments were stopped. These findings suggest that a daily rhythm of immune activity may have adaptive significance in fish.Developmental & Comparative Immunology 11/1994; 18(6):495-509. DOI:10.1016/S0145-305X(06)80004-2 · 2.82 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The organization of the neuropeptide Y (NPY)-immunoreactive system in the forebrain, pineal organ and retina of a biweekly spawning fish (Fundulus heteroclitus) was investigated. Immunoreactivity was encountered in neurons of the nucleus olfactoretinalis, in the large population of neurons in the floor of the telencephalon, and in the nucleus entopeduncularis. Isolated somata were encountered in the hypophysiotropic hypothalamic nuclei, viz., the nucleus preopticus periventricularis, nucleus preopticus, and nucleus lateralis tuberis. Immunoreactive somata were also seen in the nucleus dorsomedialis thalami. The olfactory bulb was abundantly innervated by NPY fibers. The telencephalon showed thick radiating processes basally and terminal fields with modest to high densities in the dorsal and lateral regions. NPY-immunoreactive fibers were also conspicuous in the preoptic area, suprachiasmatic nucleus, tuberal hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and paraventricular thalamic regions; discrete CSF-contacting sites were also encountered. Of special interest was the occurrence of NPY immunoreactivity in fibers of the pineal stalk and organ. In the retina, some amacrine cells displayed immunoreactivity, while the inner plexiform layer revealed a well-developed pattern of NPY fibers different from that previously described for the goldfish.Cell and Tissue Research 12/1995; 283(2):313-323. DOI:10.1007/s004410050541 · 3.57 Impact Factor