Structure/function studies of human beta-cell glucokinase. Enzymatic properties of a sequence polymorphism, mutations associated with diabetes, and other site-directed mutants.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Chicago, Illinois 60637.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.6). 07/1993; 268(20):15200-4.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Glucokinase plays a key role in the regulation of glucose metabolism in insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cells and in the liver. Recent studies have shown that mutations in this enzyme can lead to the development of a form of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance and onset during childhood. Here, we report the catalytic properties of five additional missense mutations associated with diabetes (Glu70-->Lys, Ser131-->Pro, Ala188-->Thr, Trp257-->Arg and Lys414-->Glu), one polymorphism present in both normal and diabetic subjects (Asp4-->Asn), and three site-directed mutations (Glu177-->Lys, Glu256-->Ala, and Lys414-->Ala). The Trp257-->Arg mutation generated an enzyme that had an activity that was less than 0.5% of that for native human beta-cell glucokinase. By contrast, the Glu70-->Lys, Ser131-->Pro, Ala188-->Thr, and Lys414-->Glu mutations had a Vmax that was 20-100% of normal but a Km for glucose that was 8-14-fold greater than the native enzyme. There was no effect of the Asp4-->Asn polymorphism or the Glu177-->Lys substitution on glucokinase activity. The Lys414-->Ala substitution had no effect on Vmax but increased the Km for glucose 2-fold and the Glu256-->Ala substitution caused a approximately 200-fold decrease in Vmax. These studies have led to the identification of additional residues involved in glucokinase catalysis and substrate binding.

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    ABSTRACT: Heterozygous mutations in the central glycolytic enzyme glucokinase (GCK) can result in an autosomal dominant inherited disease, namely maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 2 (MODY 2). MODY 2 is characterised by early onset: it usually appears before 25 years of age and presents as a mild form of hyperglycaemia. In recent years, the number of known GCK mutations has markedly increased. As a result, interpreting which mutations cause a disease or confer susceptibility to a disease and characterising these deleterious mutations can be a difficult task in large-scale analyses and may be impossible when using a structural perspective. The laborious and time-consuming nature of the experimental analysis led us to attempt to develop a cost-effective computational pipeline for diabetic research that is based on the fundamentals of protein biophysics and that facilitates our understanding of the relationship between phenotypic effects and evolutionary processes. In this study, we investigate missense mutations in the GCK gene by using a wide array of evolution- and structure-based computational methods, such as SIFT, PolyPhen2, PhD-SNP, SNAP, SNPs&GO, fathmm, and Align GVGD. Based on the computational prediction scores obtained using these methods, three mutations, namely E70K, A188T, and W257R, were identified as highly deleterious on the basis of their effects on protein structure and function. Using the evolutionary conservation predictors Consurf and Scorecons, we further demonstrated that most of the predicted deleterious mutations, including E70K, A188T, and W257R, occur in highly conserved regions of GCK. The effects of the mutations on protein stability were computed using PoPMusic 2.1, I-mutant 3.0, and Dmutant. We also conducted molecular dynamics (MD) simulation analysis through in silico modelling to investigate the conformational differences between the native and the mutant proteins and found that the identified deleterious mutations alter the stability, flexibility, and solvent-accessible surface area of the protein. Furthermore, the functional role of each SNP in GCK was identified and characterised using SNPeffect 4.0, F-SNP, and FASTSNP. We hope that the observed results aid in the identification of disease-associated mutations that affect protein structure and function. Our in silico findings provide a new perspective on the role of GCK mutations in MODY2 from an evolution-based structure-centric point of view. The computational architecture described in this paper can be used to predict the most appropriate disease phenotypes for large-genome sequencing projects and to provide individualised drug therapy for complex diseases such as diabetes.
    Theranostics 01/2014; 4(4):366-385. · 7.83 Impact Factor
  • Diabetes 11/2006; 55. · 8.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glucokinase (GK) is the predominant hexokinase that acts as glucose sensor and catalyses the formation of Glucose-6-phosphate. The mutations in GK gene influence the affinity for glucose and lead to altered glucose levels in blood causing maturity onset diabetes of the young type 2 (MODY2) condition, which is one of the prominent reasons of type 2 diabetic condition. In view of the importance of mutated GK resulting in hyperglycemic condition, in the present study, molecular dynamics simulations were carried out in intact and 256 E-K mutated GK structures and their energy values and conformational variations were correlated. Energy variations were observed in mutated GK (3500 Kcal/mol) structure with respect to intact GK (5000 Kcal/mol), and it showed increased -turns, decreased -turns, and more helix-helix interactions that affected substrate binding region where its volume increased from 1089.152 Å to 1246.353 Å. Molecular docking study revealed variation in docking scores (intact = -12.199 and mutated = -8.383) and binding mode of glucose in the active site of mutated GK where the involvement of A53, S54, K56, K256, D262 and Q286 has resulted in poor glucose binding which probably explains the loss of catalytic activity and the consequent prevailing of high glucose levels in MODY2 condition.
    Biotechnology research international. 01/2013; 2013:264793.

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