UV-B and the immune system. A review with special emphasis on T cell-mediated immunity.
ABSTRACT The immunosuppressive activity of ultraviolet light-B (UV-B) has become a major topic of interest, especially now that there are indications of an increased exposure to UV-B on the earth's surface, caused by a decreased thickness of the ozone layer. This review indicates that the thymus-dependent immune system is a prime target for damage by UV-B. Especially the systemic effects of UV-B on T cell mediated immunity are described and analyzed with respect to the mode of action. In summary, this review demonstrated that UV-B can alter T cell mediated immune responses by different pathways in which cytokines (e.g. TNF-alpha) and other soluble mediators (e.g. cis-urocanic acid) may play a role. Effects of UV-B on the location and morphology of different cells in the skin affect functionality of the immune system. Thus, UV-B may suppress local immunity against skin tumours and skin-associated infections as well as systemic immunity against non skin-associated infectious diseases and tumours.
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ABSTRACT: The ultraviolet B (UVB) waveband within sunlight is an important carcinogen; however, UVA is also likely to be involved. By ascribing mutations to being either UVB or UVA induced, we have previously shown that human skin cancers contain similar numbers of UVB- and UVA-induced mutations, and, importantly, the UVA mutations were at the base of the epidermis of the tumors. To determine whether these mutations occurred in response to UV, we exposed engineered human skin (EHS) to UVA, UVB, or a mixture that resembled sunlight, and then detected mutations by both denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and DNA sequencing. EHS resembles human skin, modeling differential waveband penetration to the basal, dividing keratinocytes. We administered only four low doses of UV exposure. Both UVA and UVB induced p53 mutations in irradiated EHS, suggesting that sunlight doses that are achievable during normal daily activities are mutagenic. UVA- but not UVB-induced mutations predominated in the basal epidermis that contains dividing keratinocytes and are thought to give rise to skin tumors. These studies indicate that both UVA and UVB at physiological doses are mutagenic to keratinocytes in EHS.American Journal Of Pathology 05/2009; 174(4):1534-43. · 4.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Exposure of skin to UVB radiation (290-320 nm) modulates the immune system, with most studies showing a suppression of Th1-driven immune responses. This study investigated the effects of UVB on Th2-associated immune responses using a murine model of allergic respiratory inflammation. C57BL/6, histamine receptor-1 knockout (H1RKO), and histamine receptor-2 knockout (H2RKO) mice were exposed to a single 4 kJ/m(2) dose of UVB (twice a minimal edemal dose) on shaved dorsal skin 3 days before intranasal sensitization with papain, a cysteine protease homologue of the dust mite allergen Der p 1. H1RKO mice demonstrated enhanced papain-specific inflammatory responses in the lung-draining lymph nodes (LDLNs), whereas the responses of H2RKO mice closely mimicked those of C57BL/6 mice. UVB irradiation 3 days before sensitization reduced in vitro papain-specific proliferation of LDLN cells of C57BL/6 and H1RKO mice but not H2RKO mice 24 h after challenge. The regulatory effect of UVB was transferred by adoptive transfer of unfractionated LDLN cells from UVB-irradiated, papain-sensitized C57BL/6 and H1RKO donor mice in naive recipients of the corresponding strain that were subsequently sensitized and challenged with papain. Additionally, UVB exposure suppressed papain-induced IL-5 and IL-10 production in vitro by LDLN cells from H1RKO mice but not from C57BL/6 mice or H2RKO mice. The results of this study demonstrate systemic immunomodulation of responses to intranasally delivered Ag by UVB irradiation and implicate a role for the H2 receptor in UVB-induced suppression of Ag-specific responses in the draining lymph nodes.The Journal of Immunology 04/2007; 178(5):2794-802. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Periodic episodes of increased sunspot activity (solar electromagnetic storms) occur with 10-11 and 5-6 year periodicities and may be associated with measurable biological events. We investigated whether this sunspot periodicity characterized the incidence of Pap smear-determined cervical epithelial histopathologies and human physiologic functions. From January 1983 through December 2003, monthly averages were obtained for solar flux and sunspot numbers; six infectious, premalignant and malignant changes in the cervical epithelium from 1,182,421 consecutive, serially independent, screening Pap smears (59°9″N, 4°29″E); and six human physiologic functions of a healthy man (oral temperature, pulse, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiration, and peak expiratory flow), which were measured ∼5 times daily during ∼34,500 self-measurement sessions (44°56″N, 93°8″W). After determining that sunspot numbers and solar flux, which were not annually rhythmic, occurred with a prominent 10-year and a less-prominent 5.75-year periodicity during this 21-year study span, each biological data set was analyzed with the same curve-fitting procedures. All six annually rhythmic Pap smear-detected infectious, premalignant and malignant cervical epithelial pathologies showed strong 10-year and weaker 5.75-year cycles, as did all six self-measured, annually rhythmic, physiologic functions. The phases (maxima) for the six histopathologic findings and five of six physiologic measurements were very near, or within, the first two quarters following the 10-year solar maxima. These findings add to the growing evidence that solar magnetic storm periodicities are mirrored by cyclic phase-locked rhythms of similar period length or lengths in human physiology and pathophysiology.Astrobiology 03/2011; 11(2):93-103. · 2.80 Impact Factor