Killing by cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells: multiple granule serine proteases as initiators of DNA fragmentation.
ABSTRACT The vectorial secretion of the contents of highly specialized cytoplasmic granules is of pivotal importance to the killing by cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. The purification and biochemical characterization of some of the granule constituents, in particular the pore-forming protein perforin, had engendered the notion that the killing of cellular targets was largely an osmotic phenomenon analogous to the insult delivered by complement attack. However, the apparent absence of membrane perforation in various examples of lymphocyte-mediated killing, and the observation that perforin alone could not account for apoptosis associated with programmed cell death, suggested that perforin activity represented, at best, only a part of the whole mechanism. More recently, the characterization of a large family of granule serine proteases (granzymes) has provided evidence that these molecules may collaborate in the killing process by inducing a 'suicide' pathway in target cells, resulting in DNA fragmentation. However, the serine proteases are inactive alone, their natural substrates have not been defined and they require access into the target cell cytoplasm via perforin-induced pores to exert their deleterious effects. Thus, we propose that the cytotoxic granule-mediated mechanism comprises at least two interdependent arms, perforin and serine proteases, that together are capable of inflicting cell death by osmotic shock and/or nuclear collapse.
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ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have shown that short or insufficient sleep is associated with increased risk for metabolic diseases and mortality. To elucidate mechanisms behind this connection, we aimed to identify genes and pathways affected by experimentally induced, partial sleep restriction and to verify their connection to insufficient sleep at population level. The experimental design simulated sleep restriction during a working week: sleep of healthy men (N = 9) was restricted to 4 h/night for five nights. The control subjects (N = 4) spent 8 h/night in bed. Leukocyte RNA expression was analyzed at baseline, after sleep restriction, and after recovery using whole genome microarrays complemented with pathway and transcription factor analysis. Expression levels of the ten most up-regulated and ten most down-regulated transcripts were correlated with subjective assessment of insufficient sleep in a population cohort (N = 472). Experimental sleep restriction altered the expression of 117 genes. Eight of the 25 most up-regulated transcripts were related to immune function. Accordingly, fifteen of the 25 most up-regulated Gene Ontology pathways were also related to immune function, including those for B cell activation, interleukin 8 production, and NF-κB signaling (P<0.005). Of the ten most up-regulated genes, expression of STX16 correlated negatively with self-reported insufficient sleep in a population sample, while three other genes showed tendency for positive correlation. Of the ten most down-regulated genes, TBX21 and LGR6 correlated negatively and TGFBR3 positively with insufficient sleep. Partial sleep restriction affects the regulation of signaling pathways related to the immune system. Some of these changes appear to be long-lasting and may at least partly explain how prolonged sleep restriction can contribute to inflammation-associated pathological states, such as cardiometabolic diseases.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e77184. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Granzyme-mediated apoptosis, supported by pore-forming perforin, plays an important role in CD8+ T lymphocytes (CTL)-dependent cellular immunity protection against both cancer and viral infection. Quantitative and qualitative problems with CTL are potential contributing factors to disease progression. The feasibility of developing CTL-independent cellular immunity is desired but must first overcome the barrier of CTL-independent target cell recognition. Granzyme B with its strong pro-apoptotic activity in many different target cells is investigated for use in the CTL-independent cellular immunity approach, and granzyme B or its bioactive peptides without the enzymatic activity are more desirable for use. Native granzyme B with enzymatic activity is usually investigated in cancer cells for its mediation of apoptosis by detection of DNA fragmentation. Detection of cell death mediated by such peptides in cancer cells is needed to demonstrate the potential therapeutic purposes. We show with never-before-seen microscopic images using fluorescence microscopy that a synthetic granzyme B-like peptide fluorescent conjugate (GP1R) can: 1) mediate cell death of different cancer cells via membrane extrusion, 2) bind to constitutively expressed binding targets in different cancer cells and bacteria, and 3) promote bacterial phagocytosis. The putative binding targets may serve as a universal pathologic biomarker detectable by GP1R. Our data taken together demonstrate the potential applications of GP1R for use in CTL-independent target cell recognition and target cell death induction. It may lead to development of rapid targeted detection and new treatment of cancer, viral and bacterial infections. The new treatment may show mutual benefits for two or more diseases.Journal of Fluorescence 10/2013; · 1.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: NK-lysin is an effector protein of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Mammalian NK-lysin is known to possess antibacterial property and antitumor activity. Homologues of NK-lysin have been identified in several teleost species, but the natural function of fish NK-lysin remains essentially unknown. In this study, we identified a NK-lysin, CsNKL1, from half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) and analyzed its expression, genetic organization, and biological effect on pathogen infection. CsNKL1 is composed of 135 residues and shares 33.1-56.5% overall sequence identities with other teleost NK-lysin. CsNKL1 possesses a Saposin B domain and six conserved cysteine residues that in mammals are known to form three intrachain disulfide bonds essential to antimicrobial activity. The genomic sequence of the ORF region of CsNKL1 is 1240 bp in length and, like human NK-lysin, contains five exons and four introns. Expression of CsNKL1 occurred in multiple tissues and was upregulated by bacterial and viral infection in a time dependent manner. When CsNKL1 was overexpressed in tongue sole, significant upregulation of interleukin-1 and chemokines was observed in spleen and head kidney. Following bacterial and viral infection, the pathogen loads in the tissues of CsNKL1-overexpressing fish were significantly lower than those in control fish. These results indicate that CsNKL1 possesses the novel capacities of immunomodulation and enhancing antimicrobial defense against pathogens of both bacterial and viral nature.Developmental and comparative immunology 03/2013; · 3.29 Impact Factor