[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work we evaluated several genes involved in gluconeogenesis, glycolysis and glycogen metabolism, the major pathways for carbohydrate catabolism and anabolism, in the BME26 Rhipicephalus microplus embryonic cell line. Genetic and catalytic control of the genes and enzymes associated with these pathways are modulated by alterations in energy resource availability (primarily glucose). BME26 cells in media were investigated using three different glucose concentrations, and changes in the transcription levels of target genes in response to carbohydrate utilization were assessed. The results indicate that several genes, such as glycogen synthase (GS), glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and glucose-6 phosphatase (GP) displayed mutual regulation in response to glucose treatment. Surprisingly, the transcription of gluconeogenic enzymes was found to increase alongside that of glycolytic enzymes, especially pyruvate kinase, with high glucose treatment. In addition, RNAi data from this study revealed that the transcription of gluconeogenic genes in BME26 cells is controlled by GSK-3. Collectively, these results improve our understanding of how glucose metabolism is regulated at the genetic level in tick cells.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2014; 16(1):1821-39. DOI:10.3390/ijms16011821 · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multi-modal imaging approaches of tumor metabolism that provide improved specificity, physiological relevance and spatial resolution would improve diagnosing of tumors and evaluation of tumor progression. Currently, the molecular probe FDG, glucose fluorinated with (18)F at the 2-carbon, is the primary metabolic approach for clinical diagnostics with PET imaging. However, PET lacks the resolution necessary to yield intratumoral distributions of deoxyglucose, on the cellular level. Multi-modal imaging could elucidate this problem, but requires the development of new glucose analogs that are better suited for other imaging modalities. Several such analogs have been created and are reviewed here. Also reviewed are several multi-modal imaging studies that have been performed that attempt to shed light on the cellular distribution of glucose analogs within tumors. Some of these studies are performed in vitro, while others are performed in vivo, in an animal model. The results from these studies introduce a visualization gap between the in vitro and in vivo studies that, if solved, could enable the early detection of tumors, the high resolution monitoring of tumors during treatment, and the greater accuracy in assessment of different imaging agents.
American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 01/2015; 5(1):1-13. · 3.25 Impact Factor
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