History of circumcision, medical conditions, and sexual activity and risk of penile cancer.
ABSTRACT Epidemiological evidence suggests lack of neonatal circumcision as the strongest risk factor for penile cancer, but the role of sexually transmitted diseases in the etiology of penile cancer has remained unclear.
To further clarify risk factors for penile cancer, we examined the role of circumcision, personal characteristics and habits (such as smoking), sexually transmitted diseases, past sexual activity, and medical conditions of the penis.
A population-based, case-control study was conducted in western Washington state and in the province of British Columbia. We interviewed 110 men with penile cancer diagnosed from January 1979 to July 1990 and 355 control subjects from the general population, frequency matched to case subjects on age and date of diagnosis. Tumor tissue from 67 case subjects was tested for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA by polymerase chain reaction. Results of blood tests from 69 case subjects and 208 control subjects were available for study. STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT RESULTS: Relative to men circumcised at birth, the risk for penile cancer was 3.2 times greater among men who were never circumcised and 3.0 times greater among men who were circumcised after the neonatal period. For current smokers, the risk was 2.8 times that of men who never smoked. The risk among men reporting a history of genital warts was 5.9 times that of men reporting no such history. Of 67 tumors tested for HPV DNA, 49% were positive; the majority of these positive tumors (70%) were type 16, which has been associated with anogenital carcinoma. Relative risks (RRs) associated with a reported history of penile rash or penile tear were 9.4 and 3.9, respectively. Among men not circumcised at birth, RRs associated with presence of smegma and difficulty in retracting the foreskin were 2.1 and 3.5, respectively. Twenty-eight percent of case subjects, compared with only 10% of control subjects, reported 30 or more sexual partners, and men with HPV-positive tumors were more likely to report a greater number of sexual partners.
These results suggest that the absence of neonatal circumcision and potential resulting complications are associated with penile cancer. Additionally, medical conditions of the penis, sexual activity, infection with HPV, and smoking may increase the risk for penile cancer.
A larger study would allow examination of interrelationships of circumcision, infection with HPV, and smoking as risk factors.
SourceAvailable from: Emili Masferrer
Article: Carcinoma escamoso de pene
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Marijuana use is legal in two states and additional states are considering legalization. Approximately 18 million Americans are current marijuana users. There is currently no consensus on whether marijuana use is associated with cancer risk. Our objective is to review the epidemiologic studies on this possible association. We identified 34 epidemiologic studies on upper aerodigestive tract cancers (n = 11), lung cancer (n = 6), testicular cancer (n = 3), childhood cancers (n = 6), all cancers (n = 1), anal cancer (n = 1), penile cancer (n = 1), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 2), malignant primary gliomas (n = 1), bladder cancer (n = 1), and Kaposi sarcoma (n = 1). Studies on head and neck cancer reported increased and decreased risks, possibly because there is no association, or because risks differ by human papillomavirus status or geographic differences. The lung cancer studies largely appear not to support an association with marijuana use, possibly because of the smaller amounts of marijuana regularly smoked compared with tobacco. Three testicular cancer case-control studies reported increased risks with marijuana use [summary ORs, 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-2.23 for higher frequency and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.08-2.09) for ≥10 years]. For other cancer sites, there is still insufficient data to make any conclusions. Considering that marijuana use may change due to legalization, well-designed studies on marijuana use and cancer are warranted. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 24(1); 15-31. ©2015 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 01/2015; 24(1):15-31. DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-1026 · 4.32 Impact Factor