Sex differences in relation of visceral adipose tissue accumulation to total body fatness

Lipid Research Center, Laval University Medical Research Center, Québec, Canada.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 10/1993; 58(4):463-7.
Source: PubMed


The associations between the amount of abdominal adipose tissue (AT) measured by computed tomography (CT) or estimated with predictive equations and the amount of total body fat were compared in samples of 89 men and 75 women. After correction for total body fat mass, men had significantly higher values of visceral AT volume (P < 0.0001) and also higher abdominal visceral AT areas, measured by CT or estimated by predictive equations than women (P < 0.0001). In addition, an increase in total fat mass was associated with a significantly greater increase in visceral AT volume in men than in women (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, these results suggest that the greater health hazards associated with excess fatness in men than in women may be explained by the fact that premenopausal women can accumulate more body fat than men of the same age before reaching the amounts of visceral AT found in men.

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Available from: Simone Lemieux, Jan 16, 2015
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    • "The endocrinal changes that occur in postmenopausal women have a steep decline in hormone levels and have been associated with adverse health issues. Particularly, the decrease in ovarian production of estrogen and progesterone has been linked to an increase in insulin resistance (Simpson, Merrill, Hollub, Graham-Lorence, & Mendelson, 1989), hyperinsulinemia (Tchernof et al., 1998), intra-abdominal fat (Sathya Bhama et al., 2012) and increased inflammatory markers (Lemieux et al., 1993), all of which are associated with metabolic syndrome and/or CVD. Estrogen has also been shown to promote insulin sensitivity and reduce cardiovascular risk by decreasing the visceral fat accumulation and favoring gluteal deposits in a longitudinal study with menopausal Not es: All studies included in the table report high levels of fetu in-A. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review is to summarize the role of fetuin-A in disease processes prevalent in postmenopausal women and synthesize effective interventions in obtaining healthy fetuin-A levels. A review of databases for articles related to fetuin-A and diseases associated with postmenopausal women was conducted. Articles were limited to full-text access, published in English since 1944. High fetuin-A levels are closely associated with decreased bone mineral density, increased cardiovascular disease risks, impairment of insulin signaling and disruption of adipocyte functioning. Postmenopausal women have increased risk of osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, insulin-resistance, intra-abdominal fat accumulation and vascular calcification. Low-levels of fetuin-A have been shown to be protective against the latter. The role of fetuin-A is multi-factorial and the mechanisms in which it is involved in each of these processes are vast. The present body of literature is inconsistent in defining high versus low levels of fetuin-A and their association with healthy-matched controls. The diseases associated with high levels of fetuin-A mimic diseases most prevalent in postmenopausal women. In addition, there is no research, to date, exploring fetuin-A levels in postmenopausal women and the associations it may or may not have in related diseases.
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    • "Abdominal AT areas measured by imaging techniques such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging also show a clear sex-related difference. In men, abdominal AT tends to accumulate in the visceral area to a greater extent than in women (Ross et al., 1994; Kuk et al., 2005) and for a similar fat mass, men have on average a twofold higher visceral AT accumulation compared to women (Lemieux et al., 1993). It is generally accepted that sex-specific differences in body proportions and fat distribution differences in adiposity, fat free mass, and bone mass reflect, at least in part, differences in endocrine status, (estrogens, androgens, growth hormone—GH, and Insulin Growth Factor-1—IGF-1) that emerge starting from a prepuberal stage (Mayes and Watson, 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: The biological differences between males and females are determined by a different set of genes and by a different reactivity to environmental stimuli, including the diet, in general. These differences are further emphasized and driven by the exposure to a different hormone flux throughout the life. These differences have not been taken into appropriate consideration by the scientific community. Nutritional sciences are not immune from this “bias” and when nutritional needs are concerned, females are considered only when pregnant, lactating or when their hormonal profile is returning back to “normal,” i.e., to the male-like profile. The authors highlight some of the most evident differences in aspects of biology that are associated with nutrition. This review presents and describes available data addressing differences and similarities of the “reference man” vs. the “reference woman” in term of metabolic activity and nutritional needs. According to this assumption, available evidences of sex-associated differences of specific biochemical pathways involved in substrate metabolism are reported and discussed. The modulation by sexual hormones affecting glucose, amino acid and protein metabolism and the metabolization of nutritional fats and the distribution of fat depots, is considered targeting a tentative starting up background for a gender concerned nutritional science.
    Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 01/2015; 55(2):227-41. DOI:10.1080/10408398.2011.651177 · 5.18 Impact Factor
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    • "Furthermore, these gender differences are also predicted to continue to 2030 (Finkelstein et al, 2012). Physiologically, females and males differ in levels of adiposity (Rosenbaum and Leibel, 1999; Woods et al., 2003), lipolytic capacity per cell (Löfgren et al., 2002), and body fat (Lemieux et al., 1993). Thus, although men and women are both prone to obesity, its manifestations and physiological consequences differ between men and women, resulting in different eating and behavioral profiles. "
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    ABSTRACT: Sexually-dimorphic behavioral and biological aspects of human eating have been described. Using psychophysiological interactions (PPI) analysis, we investigated sex-based differences in functional connectivity with a key emotion-processing region (amygdala, AMG) and a key reward-processing area (ventral striatum, VS) in response to high vs. low energy-dense (ED) food images using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in obese persons in fasted and fed states. When fed, in response to high vs. low-ED food cues, obese men (vs. women) had greater functional connectivity with AMG in right subgenual anterior cingulate, whereas obese women had greater functional connectivity with AMG in left angular gyrus and right primary motor areas. In addition, when fed, AMG functional connectivity with pre/post-central gyrus was more associated with BMI in women (vs. men). When fasted, obese men (vs. women) had greater functional connectivity with AMG in bilateral supplementary frontal and primary motor areas, left precuneus, and right cuneus, whereas obese women had greater functional connectivity with AMG in left inferior frontal gyrus, right thalamus, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. When fed, greater functional connectivity with VS was observed in men in bilateral supplementary and primary motor areas, left postcentral gyrus, and left precuneus. These sex-based differences in functional connectivity in response to visual food cues may help partly explain differential eating behavior, pathology prevalence, and outcomes in men and women.
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