Monoclonal antibody 8A2-induced retraction appears to be mediated by protein phosphorylation in goldfish retinal ganglion cell axons.
ABSTRACT We have recently demonstrated that binding by monoclonal antibody (mAb) 8A2 to regenerating retinal ganglion cell axons in goldfish explants specifically induces a sustained, actin-based retraction response that is similar in most respects to a spontaneous retraction (S.G. Finnegan, V. Lemmon, and E. Koenig, Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton, 1992). Experiments were conducted to evaluate potential signal transduction pathways that may play a role in mediating retraction, using the mAb 8A2 retraction model system. Potential roles of cAMP, elevated intracellular calcium, or calmodulin-dependent processes were probed and the results did not appear to implicate them in either the induction or the maintenance of the axon retraction response. In contrast, treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, but not with inactive phorbol esters, induced a retraction response, although the response was more variable and less robust than that produced by mAb 8A2. However, both forms of induction were blocked by staurosporine, a nonspecific kinase inhibitor. Okadaic acid, a potent serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor produced a very robust retraction response, and subthreshold doses significantly potentiated the retraction response induced by mAb 8A2. Genistein inhibited the mAb 8A2-induced retraction response at concentrations selective for tyrosine kinase activity in a dose-dependent manner. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that an augmented phosphorylation state of one or more axonal proteins, perhaps catalyzed in part by protein kinase C, produces a sustained physiological retraction. In addition, tyrosine kinase may be involved in transducing surface-mediated interactions that trigger retraction, including the binding reaction signal of mAb 8A2.
- Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11/1996; 1286(3):247-67. · 4.66 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: During neuronal development neurites are likely to be specifically guided to their targets. Within the chicken retina, ganglion cell axons are extended exclusively into the optic fibre layer, but not into the outer retina. We investigated, whether radial glial cells having endfeet at the optic fibre layer and somata in the outer retina, might be involved in neurite guidance. In order to analyse distinct cell surface areas, endfeet and somata of these glial cells were purified. Glial endfeet were isolated from flat mounted retina by a specific detachment procedure. Glial somata were purified by negative selection using a monoclonal antibody/complement mediated cytolysis of all non-glial cells. Retinal tissue strips were explanted either onto pure glial endfeet or onto glial somata. As revealed by scanning and fluorescence microscopy, essentially no ganglion cell axons were evident on glial somata, whereas axonal outgrowth was abundant on glial endfeet. However, when glial somata were heat treated and employed thereafter as the substratum, axon extension was significantly increased. Time-lapse video recording studies indicated that purified cell membranes of glial somata but not of endfeet induced collapse of growth cones. Collapsing activity was destroyed by heat treatment of glial membranes. The collapsing activity of retinal glia was found to be specific for retinal ganglion cell neurites, because growth cones from dorsal root ganglia remained unaffected. Employing four different kinase inhibitors revealed that the investigated protein kinase types were unlikely to be involved in the collapse reaction. The data show for the first time that radial glial cells are functionally polarized having permissive endfeet and inhibitory somata with regard to outgrowing axons. This finding underscores the pivotal role of radial glia in structuring developing nervous systems.European Journal of Neuroscience 04/1998; 10(3):1000-10. · 3.75 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Glutamate receptor currents were examined in horizontal cells from cultured human retina using whole-cell recording procedures. Horizontal cells possess both AMPA and kainate receptors and both produce significant sustained currents. The kainate-induced current did not show significant desensitization and was not enhanced by concanavalin A. The sustained AMPA current was smaller than the kainate current, but the difference was almost entirely due to pronounced desensitization. The horizontal cell AMPA current was enhanced by cyclothiazide but not by PEPA, indicating the presence of the flip receptor variant. GYKI-52466 blocked the AMPA response (IC50 = 5 microM against 100 microM AMPA) but also blocked the kainate response (IC50 = 45 microM against 100 microM kainate). The diversity of glutamate receptors in human horizontal cells suggests that synaptic input to these neurons may be multiplexed through both kainate and AMPA channels.Visual Neuroscience 01/2004; 21(1):89-95. · 1.48 Impact Factor