Poly(A)+ RNA from mammalian retina expresses bicuculline/baclofen-insensitive gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in Xenopus oocytes with properties similar to those of homooligomeric GABA rho 1 receptors. The pharmacological profile of these rho-like receptors was extended by measuring sensitivities to various GABAA and GABAB receptor ligands. For direct comparison the same compounds were also assayed with GABAA receptors expressed by rat brain RNA. The potency sequence for heterocyclic GABA analogues at the GABA rho-like receptors was GABA (1.3) > muscimol (2.3) > isoguvacine (100) (approximate EC50 in parentheses; all EC50 and Kb values given in microM). Both muscimol and isoguvacine were partial agonists at the rho-like receptors. 4,5,6,7-Tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (Kb congruent to 32), piperidine-4-sulfonic acid (Kb congruent to 85), and isonipecotic acid (Kb congruent to 1000) acted primarily as competitive antagonists, showing little or no activity as agonists. The sulfonic acid GABA analogue 3-aminopropanesulfonic acid was also a competitive antagonist (Kb congruent to 20). Conformationally restricted GABA analogues trans- and cis-4-aminocrotonic acid (TACA and CACA) were agonists at the rho-like receptors. TACA (EC50 congruent to 0.6) had twice the potency of GABA and was 125 times more potent than CACA (EC50 congruent to 75). Z-3-(Amidinothio)propenoic acid, an isothiouronium analogue of GABA, had little activity as an agonist but instead acted as a competitive antagonist (Kb congruent to 20). At concentrations of > 100 microM, bicuculline did have some weak competitive inhibitory effects on the GABA rho-like receptors (Kb congruent to 6000), but it was at least 5000 times more potent at GABAA receptors. Strychnine (Kb congruent to 70) and SR-95531 (Kb congruent to 35) also were competitive inhibitors of the rho-like receptors but were, respectively, 20 and 240 times more potent at GABAA receptors. The GABAB receptor ligands baclofen, phaclofen, and saclofen (1-100 microM) had no appreciable effects on the rho-like receptors. In contrast, 3-aminopropylphosphonic acid, the phosphonic acid analogue of GABA, acted as a competitive antagonist (Kb congruent to 10), and 3-aminopropylphosphinic acid and 3-aminopropyl(methyl)-phosphinic acid were moderately potent antagonists (Kb congruent to 1.7 and 0.8, respectively). delta-Aminovaleric acid was also an antagonist (Kb congruent to 20), whereas 4-aminobutylphosphonic acid, the phosphonic acid analogue of delta-aminovaleric acid, was only a weak inhibitor (Kb congruent to 600).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acts through various types of receptors in the central nervous system. GABAρ receptors, defined by their characteristic pharmacology and presence of ρ subunits in the channel structure, are poorly understood and their role in the cortex is ill-defined. Here, we used a targeted pharmacological, NMR-based functional metabolomic approach in Guinea pig brain cortical tissue slices to identify a distinct role for these receptors. We compared metabolic fingerprints generated by a range of ligands active at GABAρ and included these in a principal components analysis with a library of other metabolic fingerprints obtained using ligands active at GABAA and GABAB, with inhibitors of GABA uptake and with compounds acting to inhibit enzymes active in the GABAergic system. This enabled us to generate a metabolic “footprint” of the GABAergic system which revealed classes of metabolic activity associated with GABAρ which are distinct from other GABA receptors. Antagonised GABAρ produce large metabolic effects at extrasynaptic sites suggesting they may be involved in tonic inhibition.
"Our current data focused on baclofen, a potent GABAB receptor agonist, which was synthesized 30 years before a GABAB receptor was found and possesses a high affinity for the GABAB receptors and a strong intrinsic activity [17,25]. In the present study, we used the rat behavioral sensitization model to further study the effect of GABAB receptor agonist on opioid dependence. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Repeated morphine exposure can induce behavioral sensitization. There are evidences have shown that central gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system is involved in morphine dependence. However, the effect of a GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on morphine-induced behavioral sensitization in rats is unclear.
We used morphine-induced behavioral sensitization model in rat to investigate the effects of baclofen on behavioral sensitization. Moreover, dopamine release in the shell of the nucleus accumbens was evaluated using microdialysis assay in vivo.
The present study demonstrated that morphine challenge (3 mg/kg, s.c.) obviously enhanced the locomotor activity following 4-day consecutive morphine administration and 3-day withdrawal period, which indicated the expression of morphine sensitization. In addition, chronic treatment with baclofen (2.5, 5 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the development of morphine sensitization. It was also found that morphine challenge 3 days after repeated morphine administration produced a significant increase of extracellular dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. Furthermore, chronic treatment with baclofen decreased the dopamine release induced by morphine challenge.
Our results indicated that gamma-aminobutyric acid system plays an important role in the morphine sensitization in rat and suggested that behavioral sensitization is a promising model to study the mechanism underlying drug abuse.
"GABA applications to oocytes expressing homomeric ρ 1 GABA C receptors induced large inward Cl -currents displaying all of the features of retinal GABA C receptor-mediated responses. For example, they are bicuculline-insensitive, TPMPA and picrotoxin sensitive, non-desensitizing, and display the same pharmacological profile for agonists (Kusama et al., 1993; Woodward et al., 1993). In addition, this experimental model allowed us to control more precisely the extracellular concentration of ascorbic acid and the GABA concentration sensed by the GABA C receptors, thus, a more quantitative approach was possible. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ionotropic GABA receptors (GABA(A) and GABA(C)) belong to the Cys-loop receptor family of ligand-gated ion channels. GABA(C) receptors are highly expressed in the retina, mainly localized at the axon terminals of bipolar cells. Ascorbic acid, an endogenous redox agent, modulates the function of diverse proteins, and basal levels of ascorbic acid in the retina are very high. However, the effect of ascorbic acid on retinal GABA receptors has not been studied. Here we show that the function of GABA(C) and GABA(A) receptors is regulated by ascorbic acid. Patch-clamp recordings from bipolar cell terminals in goldfish retinal slices revealed that GABA(C) receptor-mediated currents activated by tonic background levels of extracellular GABA, and GABA(C) currents elicited by local GABA puffs, are both significantly enhanced by ascorbic acid. In addition, a significant rundown of GABA puff-evoked currents was observed in the absence of ascorbic acid. GABA-evoked Cl(-) currents mediated by homomeric ρ(1) GABA(C) receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes were also potentiated by ascorbic acid in a concentration-dependent, stereo-specific, reversible, and voltage-independent manner. Studies involving the chemical modification of sulfhydryl groups showed that the two Cys-loop cysteines and histidine 141, all located in the ρ(1) subunit extracellular domain, each play a key role in the modulation of GABA(C) receptors by ascorbic acid. Additionally, we show that retinal GABA(A) IPSCs and heterologously expressed GABA(A) receptor currents are similarly augmented by ascorbic acid. Our results suggest that ascorbic acid may act as an endogenous agent capable of potentiating GABAergic neurotransmission in the CNS.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 06/2011; 31(26):9672-82. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5157-10.2011 · 6.34 Impact Factor
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