Substitution of three amino acids switches receptor specificity of Gq alpha to that of Gi alpha.
ABSTRACT Agonist-bound receptors activate heterotrimeric (alpha beta gamma) G proteins by catalysing replacement of GDP bound to the alpha-subunit by GTP. mutations in the C terminus of the alpha-subunit, its covalent modification by pertussis toxin-catalysed ribosylation of ADP, peptide-specific antibodies directed against it, and peptides mimicking C-terminal sequences, all inhibit receptor-mediated activation of G proteins. The logical prediction--that specific amino-acid residues at the C-termini of alpha-subunits can determine the abilities of individual G proteins to discriminate among specific subsets of receptors--has so far not been tested experimentally. Different hormone receptors specifically activate Gq or Gi, whose alpha-subunits (alpha q or alpha i) stimulate phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C or inhibit adenylyl cyclase, respectively. Here we replace C-terminal amino acids of alpha q with the corresponding residues of alpha i2 to create alpha q/alpha i2 chimaeras that can mediate stimulation of phospholipase C by receptors otherwise coupled exclusively to Gi. A minimum of three alpha i2 amino acids, including a glycine three residues from the C terminus, suffices to switch the receptor specificity of the alpha q/alpha i2 chimaeras. We propose that a C-terminal turn, centered on this glycine, plays an important part in specifying receptor interactions of G proteins in the Gi/Go/Gz family.
- SourceAvailable from: plosone.org[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Based on the recently described crystal structure of the β2 adrenergic receptor - Gs-protein complex, we report the first molecular-dynamics simulations of ternary GPCR complexes designed to identify the selectivity determinants for receptor-G-protein binding. Long-term molecular dynamics simulations of agonist-bound β2AR-Gαs and D2R-Gαi complexes embedded in a hydrated bilayer environment and computational alanine-scanning mutagenesis identified distinct residues of the N-terminal region of intracellular loop 3 to be crucial for coupling selectivity. Within the G-protein, specific amino acids of the α5-helix, the C-terminus of the Gα-subunit and the regions around αN-β1 and α4-β6 were found to determine receptor recognition. Knowledge of these determinants of receptor-G-protein binding selectivity is essential for designing drugs that target specific receptor/G-protein combinations.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e67244. · 3.73 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent advances in crystallization methods have permitted to resolve the molecular structure of several members of the rhodopsin family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Comparison among these structures revealed a number of conserved polar and charged residues implicated in the receptor transduction pathways. These residues function as micro-switches in the process of receptor activation and has been the object of study of many research groups. However, hydrophobic forces, usually underappreciated, also play a major role in GPCR function. Conserved hydrophobic residues contribute significantly to receptor activation, G protein coupling, and oligomerization processes. This review focuses on the impact of the hydrophobic amino acids observed in the structure of class A GPCRs necessary for their function. This information represents a fundamental piece to complete a holistic view of the GPCR signal transduction machinery.Methods in enzymology 01/2013; 520C:99-115. · 1.90 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Taste is an essential sense for the survival of most organisms. In insects, taste is particularly important as it allows to detect and avoid ingesting many plant toxins, such as L-canavanine. We previously showed that L-canavanine is toxic for Drosophila melanogaster and that flies are able to detect this toxin in the food. L-canavanine is a ligand of DmXR, a variant G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) belonging to the metabotropic glutamate receptor subfamily that is expressed in bitter-sensitive taste neurons of Drosophila. To transduce the signal intracellularly, GPCR activate heterotrimeric G proteins constituted of α, β and γ subunits. The aim of this study was to identify which Gα protein was required for L-canavanine detection in Drosophila. By using a pharmacological approach, we first demonstrated that DmXR has the best coupling with Gαo protein subtype. Then, by using genetic, behavioral assays and electrophysiology, we found that Gαo47A is required in bitter-sensitive taste neurons for L-canavanine sensitivity. In conclusion, our study revealed that Gαo47A plays a crucial role in L-canavanine detection.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e63484. · 3.73 Impact Factor