Paraspinal mapping: quantified needle electromyography in lumbar radiculopathy.
ABSTRACT In the diagnosis of low back pain, the presence of a high percentage of false positive findings on radiologic imaging studies has lead to a more definitive role for electrodiagnosis as a confirmatory test. The paraspinal muscles are a crucial part of the electrodiagnostic examination for radiculopathy. To date, no technique for paraspinal evaluation has been validated. Based on previously documented anatomical techniques, we have designed a method of paraspinal examination termed "paraspinal mapping" (PM). Electromyographic (EMG) needles are placed in five carefully chosen locations and inserted in multiple directions. Individual scores for these insertions are added to determine a total PM sensitivity score. The first 50 studies using PM were compared to peripheral EMG, imaging studies, and pain drawings. Results indicate that the technique is easy to perform. Sensitivity scores relate well with these tests. In this limited and uncontrolled population, PM had higher sensitivity for abnormalities than either peripheral EMG or imaging studies. Because of the anatomical validity of PM, future studies may show it to be useful in localizing the level of radiculopathy independently from peripheral EMG, and to support clinical findings and imaging studies.
- Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 07/1971; 52(6):239-43. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In order to study the type and number of CAT scan abnormalities of the lumbar spine that occur in asymptomatic people, 52 studies from a control population with no history of back trouble were mixed randomly with six scans from patients with surgically proven spinal disease, and all were interpreted by three neuroradiologists in a blinded fashion. Irrespective of age, 35.4% (26.6%, 51.0%, and 31.3%) were found to be abnormal. Spinal disease was identified in an average of 19.5% (23.8%, 22.7%, and 12.5%) of the under 40-year-olds, and it was a herniated nucleus pulposus in every instance. In the over 40-year-old age group, there was an average of 50% (29.2%, 81.5%, and 48.1%) abnormal findings, with diagnoses of herniated disc, facet degeneration, and stenosis occurring most frequently.Spine 10/1984; 9(6):549-51. · 2.16 Impact Factor
Article: The human lumbar dorsal rami.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The L 1-4 dorsal rami tend to form three branches, medial, lateral, and intermediate, which are distributed, respectively, to multifidus, iliocostalis, and longissimus. The intertransversarii mediales are innervated by a branch of the dorsal ramus near the origin of the medial branch. The L 4 dorsal ramus regularly forms three branches while the L 1-3 levels the lateral and intermediate branches may, alternatively, arise from a short common stem. The L 5 dorsal ramus is much longer than the others and forms only a medial and an intermediate branch. Each lumbar medial branch innervates two adjacent zygapophysial joints and ramifies in multifidus, supplying only those fascicles which arise from the spinous process with the same segmental number as the nerve. The comparative anatomy of the lumbar dorsal rami is discussed and the applied anatomy with respect to 'rhizolysis', 'facet denervation' and diagnostic paraspinal electromyography is described.Journal of Anatomy 04/1982; 134(Pt 2):383-97. · 2.36 Impact Factor