Human Plasma Transport of Vitamin D after Its Endogenous Synthesis
ABSTRACT Transport of vitamin D3 from its sites of cutaneous synthesis into the circulation has been assumed to be via the plasma vitamin D binding protein (DBP). We studied vitamin D transport from the skin in seven healthy volunteers who received whole body irradiation with 27 mJ/cm2 dosage of ultraviolet B light (290-320 nm). Samples of venous blood were collected serially in EDTA and immediately chilled. In KBr, plasma samples were ultracentrifuged to provide a rapid separation of proteins of density < and > 1.3 g/ml. Upper and lower phases and serial fractions were analyzed for vitamin D3 (extraction, HPLC), cholesterol (enzyme assay), and human DBP (hDBP) (radial immunodiffusion). Total plasma vitamin D (basal level < 1 ng/ml) increased by 10 h and peaked at 24 h (9 +/- 1 ng/ml). 98% of the D3 remained at the density > 1.3 layers for up to 7 d, whereas cholesterol (> 85%) was detected at density < 1.3 and all of the hDBP was at density > 1.3. In three volunteers who each ingested 1.25 mg of vitamin D2, the total plasma D2 increased to 90 +/- 32 ng/ml by 4 h, and the D2 was evenly distributed between the upper and lower layers at 4, 8, and 24 h after the dose, indicating a continuing association of the vitamin with chylomicrons and lipoproteins, as well as with hDBP. Actin affinity chromatography removed D3 from plasma of irradiated subjects, indicating the association of the D3 with DBP. These findings indicate that endogenously synthesized vitamin D3 travels in plasma almost exclusively on DBP, providing for a slower hepatic delivery of the vitamin D and the more sustained increase in plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol observed after depot, parenteral administration of vitamin D. In contrast, the association of orally administered vitamin D with chylomicrons and lipoproteins allows for receptor-mediated, rapid hepatic delivery of vitamin D, and the reported rapid but less-sustained increases in plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Bruce W Hollis, May 13, 2014
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- "It circulates at a high concentration in the serum (6–7 μM), being part of the albumin gene family and sharing the multiple disulfide linked triple domain structure of albumin . VDBP plays pivotal roles in multiple biological and metabolic pathways, such as the organ-specific transport of vitamin D and its metabolites to target organs . VDBP binds both the inactive and the active form of Vitamin D obtained after enzymatic hydroxylation in the liver and kidney . "
ABSTRACT: Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominant metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of hepatic porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD). The disease is characterized by life threatening acute neurovisceral attacks. The aim of this study was to identify metabolites secreted by the hepatocytes that reflect differential metabolic status in the liver and that may predict response to the acute attack treatment. Plasma vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) from a mouse model of AIP displayed an abnormal migration in 2D-electrophoresis that is efficiently recovered upon gene therapy leading to liver specific over-expression of the PBGD protein. The change in VDBP mobility results from a differential isoelectric point suggesting a post-translational modification that takes place preferably in the liver. Liquid chromatography-massspectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of human samples before and after glycosidase treatment revealed glycosylated plasma VDBP specifically in patients with recurrent attacks of AIP. Glycosylated VDBP recovered normal values in three severely afflicted AIP patients submitted to therapeutic liver transplantation. Our findings suggest that post-translational modification of VDBP might be considered as a promising biomarker to study and monitor the liver metabolic status in patients with AIP. We describe an increased glycosylation of VDBP in porphyric livers. Normal glycosylation was recovered upon liver gene therapy in a mouse model of porphyria or after liver transplantation in severely afflicted patients with AIP. Moreover, quantification of glycosylated VDBP by our ELISA immunoassay or LC-MS protocol in patients undergoing PBGD gene therapy (www.aipgene.org) may be used as a marker indicating improvement or normalization of the patient's hepatic metabolism. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.Journal of proteomics 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jprot.2015.05.004 · 3.89 Impact Factor
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- "The two KR-ratio regions for DBP are largely separated by species phylogeny (not shown). One complication that arises with DBP is the balance between the normal circulating vitamin D transport role and transport of vitamin D from the epidermis50 in those species for which synthesis in the skin is a major contributor to the vitamin D pool. Possibly the bimodal KR-ratio distribution for DBP reflects this distinction. "
ABSTRACT: Prediction and engineering of protein solubility is an important but imprecise area. While some features are routinely used, such as the avoidance of extensive non-polar surface area, scope remains for benchmarking of sequence and structural features with experimental data. We study properties in the context of experimental solubilities, protein gene expression levels, and families of abundant proteins (serum albumin and myoglobin) and their less abundant paralogues. A common feature that emerges for proteins with elevated solubility and at higher expression and abundance levels is an increased ratio of lysine content to arginine content. We suggest that the same properties of arginine that give rise to its recorded propensity for specific interaction surfaces also lead to favorable interactions at nonspecific contacts, and thus lysine is favored for proteins at relatively high concentration. A survey of protein therapeutics shows that a significant subset possesses a relatively low lysine to arginine ratio, and therefore may not be favored for high protein concentration. We conclude that modulation of lysine and arginine content could prove a useful and relatively simple addition to the toolkit available for engineering protein solubility in biotechnological applications.Molecular Pharmaceutics 11/2013; 11(1). DOI:10.1021/mp4004749 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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- "We believe that this observation is the result of the interaction between various metabolic pathways that regulate 25(OH)D levels. Previous studies have shown that endogenously synthesized vitamin D3 is transferred almost completely by VDBP to liver and this transport is slow, leading to a more sustained plasma vitamin D3, compared to that from supplementation of vitamin D, which is delivered to the liver by non-VDBP carriers in the plasma . VDBP may also be an important determinant of serum 25(OH)D concentration, particularly when dietary intake of vitamin D is low. "
ABSTRACT: Magnesium plays an essential role in the synthesis and metab ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Magnesium plays an essential role in the synthesis and metabolism of vitamin D and magnesium supplementation substantially reversed the resistance to vitamin D treatment in patients with magnesium-dependent vitamin-D-resistant rickets. We hypothesized that dietary magnesium alone, particularly its interaction with vitamin D intake, contributes to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, and the associations between serum 25(OH)D and risk of mortality may be modified by magnesium intake level. We tested these novel hypotheses utilizing data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001 to 2006, a population-based cross-sectional study, and the NHANES III cohort, a population-based cohort study. Serum 25(OH)D was used to define vitamin D status. Mortality outcomes in the NHANES III cohort were determined by using probabilistic linkage with the National Death Index (NDI). High intake of total, dietary or supplemental magnesium was independently associated with significantly reduced risks of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency respectively. Intake of magnesium significantly interacted with intake of vitamin D in relation to risk of both vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. Additionally, the inverse association between total magnesium intake and vitamin D insufficiency primarily appeared among populations at high risk of vitamin insufficiency. Furthermore, the associations of serum 25(OH)D with mortality, particularly due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and colorectal cancer, were modified by magnesium intake, and the inverse associations were primarily present among those with magnesium intake above the median. Our preliminary findings indicate it is possible that magnesium intake alone or its interaction with vitamin D intake may contribute to vitamin D status. The associations between serum 25(OH)D and risk of mortality may be modified by the intake level of magnesium. Future studies, including cohort studies and clinical trials, are necessary to confirm the findings.BMC Medicine 08/2013; 11(1):187. DOI:10.1186/1741-7015-11-187 · 7.25 Impact Factor