Neuropsychological deficits in abstinent cocaine abusers: preliminary findings after two weeks of abstinence.
ABSTRACT Sixteen subjects hospitalized for treatment of cocaine dependence were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests within 72 h of last cocaine use and again approximately 2 weeks later. Twenty-one non-cocaine using control subjects, matched for age, gender, ethnicity and education, also received neuropsychological testing. Abstinence from mood altering substances during the 2-week study period was verified for both groups on three occasions using quantitative urine analysis. The results suggest that recent cocaine use is associated with impairment in memory, visuospatial abilities, and concentration during the acute phase of withdrawal, independent of withdrawal-related depression. Furthermore, many of these deficits appear to persist at least 2 weeks beyond cessation of cocaine use.
- SourceAvailable from: Thomas J R Beveridge[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cocaine users exhibit a wide range of behavioral impairments accompanied by brain structural, neurochemical and functional abnormalities. Metabolic mapping studies in cocaine users and animal models have shown extensive functional alterations throughout the striatum, limbic system, and cortex. Few studies, however, have evaluated the persistence of these effects following cessation of cocaine availability. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to assess the functional effects of re-exposure to cocaine in nonhuman primates after the discontinuation of cocaine self-administration for 30 or 90 days, using the quantitative autoradiographic 2-[(14)C]deoxyglucose (2DG) method. Rhesus monkeys self-administered cocaine (fixed interval 3-min schedule, 30 infusions per session, 0.3 mg/kg/infusion) for 100 sessions followed by 30 (n=4) or 90 days (n=3) during which experimental sessions were not conducted. Food-reinforced control animals (n=5) underwent identical schedules of reinforcement. Animals were then re-exposed to cocaine or food for one final session and the 2DG method applied immediately after session completion. Compared to controls, re-exposure to cocaine after 30 or 90 day drug-free periods resulted in lower rates of glucose utilization in ventral and dorsal striatum, prefrontal and temporal cortex, limbic system, thalamus, and midbrain. These data demonstrate that vulnerability to the effects of cocaine persists for as long as 90 days after cessation of drug use. While there was some evidence for recovery (fewer brain areas were affected by cocaine re-exposure at 90 days as compared to 30 days), this was not uniform across regions, thus suggesting that recovery occurs at different rates in different brain systems.Neuropharmacology 06/2014; 85. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2014.06.003 · 4.82 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Crack cocaine use is associated with impaired verbal memory in HIV-infected women more than uninfected women. To understand the neural basis for this impairment, this study examined the effects of crack cocaine use on activation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and strategic encoding during a verbal memory task in HIV-infected women. Three groups of HIV-infected women from the Chicago Consortium of the Women's Interagency HIV Study were compared: current users of crack cocaine (n = 10), former users of cocaine (n = 11), and women who had never used cocaine (n = 9). Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a verbal memory task and completed a neuropsychological test of verbal memory. On the neuropsychological test, current crack users performed significantly worse than other groups on semantic clustering, a measure of strategic encoding, p < 0.05. During encoding, activation in left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was lower in current and former cocaine users compared to never users. During recognition, activation in bilateral PFC, specifically left dorsal medial PFC and bilateral dorsolateral PFC, was lower in current and former users compared to women who had never used cocaine. Lower activation in left dorsolateral PFC was correlated with worse performance on the recognition task, p < 0.05. The verbal learning and memory deficits associated with cocaine use in women with HIV may be partially accounted for by alterations in ACC and PFC function.Journal of NeuroVirology 04/2014; 20(4). DOI:10.1007/s13365-014-0250-x · 3.32 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study investigated how decision-making process occurs in crack dependents through the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). 30 participants were selected to crack dependent group GDC, and 15 non-users controls - GNU, from both sexes. We used the Cocaine Craving Questionnaire-Brief to assess the craving intensity. There were significant differences between groups both in the total-calculus score and in the blocks scores. The learning curve of the GDC was constant and negative during almost all game, except in the very ending when a suggestion of learning was observed. Regarding the task performance's classification, the analysis showed that a significant number of controls participants achieved a non-impaired performance, opposed to GDC performance. The differences between groups investigated in the IGT corroborate with a previous study finding, about a worse decision-making process associated with cocaine and crack addiction.Estudos de Psicologia (Natal) 04/2012; 17(1):99-106. DOI:10.1590/S1413-294X2012000100012