Neuropsychological deficits in abstinent cocaine abusers: preliminary findings after two weeks of abstinence.
ABSTRACT Sixteen subjects hospitalized for treatment of cocaine dependence were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests within 72 h of last cocaine use and again approximately 2 weeks later. Twenty-one non-cocaine using control subjects, matched for age, gender, ethnicity and education, also received neuropsychological testing. Abstinence from mood altering substances during the 2-week study period was verified for both groups on three occasions using quantitative urine analysis. The results suggest that recent cocaine use is associated with impairment in memory, visuospatial abilities, and concentration during the acute phase of withdrawal, independent of withdrawal-related depression. Furthermore, many of these deficits appear to persist at least 2 weeks beyond cessation of cocaine use.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Cocaine use disorder is associated with cognitive deficits. However, the literature remains somewhat ambiguous with respect to which distinct cognitive functions are the most impaired in cocaine use disorder and to how duration of abstinence affects cognitive recovery. Here, we performed a meta-analysis to determine the cognitive domains impaired in cocaine abuse/dependence and the duration of abstinence necessary to achieve cognitive recovery. Methods: A literature search yielded 46 studies that assessed cognitive dysfunction in subjects with cocaine abuse/dependence. Effect-size estimates were calculated using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis V2, for the following 11 cognitive domains: attention, executive functions, impulsivity, speed of processing, verbal fluency/language, verbal learning and memory, visual learning and memory, visuospatial abilities, and working memory. Within these 11 domains, effect-size estimates were calculated on the basis of abstinence duration: short- (positive for drugs urine screening), intermediate- (<= 12 weeks), and long-term (>= 20 weeks) abstinence. Results: Findings revealed moderate impairment across 8 cognitive domains during intermediate abstinence. The most impaired domains were attention, impulsivity, verbal learning/memory, and working memory. For some domains (attention, speed of processing, and verbal learning/memory), impairments were smaller during short-term abstinence than during intermediate abstinence. Finally, small effect-size estimates were found for long-term abstinence. Discussion: These results suggest significant impairment across multiple cognitive domains in cocaine abusers, and that some of these deficits may be partially masked by the residual or acute withdrawal effects of cocaine. Cognitive dysfunctions remain stable during the first months of abstinence and may abate after 5 months of sobriety.Journal of Addiction Medicine 09/2014; 8(5). DOI:10.1097/ADM.0000000000000066 · 1.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Impulsivity may underlie the poor treatment retention and high relapse rates observed in cocaine-dependent persons. However, observed differences in measures of impulsivity between cocaine-dependent and healthy control participants often do not reach clinical significance, suggesting that the clinical relevance of these differences may be limited. Objectives: To examine which measures of impulsivity (i.e. self-report impulsivity, self-report personality, neurocognitive testing) best distinguish cocaine-dependent and healthy control participants (i.e. showing differences at least 1.5 standard deviations [SD] from controls). Optimal measures were considered to demonstrate sufficient classification accuracy. Methods: Sixty-five recently abstinent cocaine-dependent and 25 healthy control participants were assessed using select neurocognitive tests and self-report questionnaires including the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11a), and the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe). Results: When corrected for years of education and gender, neurocognitive measures did not demonstrate clinically significant differences between cocaine-dependent and control participants. The personality measures TCI Purposefulness and Congruent Second Nature and NEO-PI-R Impulsiveness, and the self-rating measures FrSBe Disinhibition and BIS-11 Motor Impulsivity and Total successfully identified clinically meaningful elevations in impulsivity within cocaine-dependent participants (>1.5 SDs from controls). Furthermore, these measures achieved 84-93% accuracy in discriminating cocaine-dependent from control participants. Conclusion: Clinically significant neurocognitive impairment in cocaine-dependent participants was not observed in this sample. As the BIS-11 or FrSBe are brief to administer, accurate, and have been shown to predict treatment retention and relapse, these measures appear to be optimal, relative to the personality measures, for examining trait impulsivity in cocaine dependence.The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 08/2014; 40(6):1-8. DOI:10.3109/00952990.2014.939752 · 1.47 Impact Factor