Berry J, van Gorp WG, Herzberg DS, Hinkin C, Boone K, Steinman L et al. Neuropsychological deficits in abstinent cocaine abusers: Preliminary findings after two weeks of abstinence. Drug Alcohol Depend 32: 231-237
Sixteen subjects hospitalized for treatment of cocaine dependence were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests within 72 h of last cocaine use and again approximately 2 weeks later. Twenty-one non-cocaine using control subjects, matched for age, gender, ethnicity and education, also received neuropsychological testing. Abstinence from mood altering substances during the 2-week study period was verified for both groups on three occasions using quantitative urine analysis. The results suggest that recent cocaine use is associated with impairment in memory, visuospatial abilities, and concentration during the acute phase of withdrawal, independent of withdrawal-related depression. Furthermore, many of these deficits appear to persist at least 2 weeks beyond cessation of cocaine use.
"One of the key questions in drug abuse research, however, is how the adaptations that develop during chronic cocaine exposure are altered after the cessation of drug use. Specifically, some investigations of affect, craving levels, and the cognitive abilities of addicts have shown that there is some evidence for improvement after drug use has terminated (Coffey et al., 2000; Weddington et al., 1990; Satel et al., 1991), although other studies have provided support for continuing deficits (Herning et al., 1990; Berry et al., 1993). Studies in animal models are consistent with an absence of recovery (Shaham and Hope, 2005; Freeman et al., 2008, 2010; Nestler, 2001; Nader et al., 2006), as well as the development of new adaptations in, for example, the glutamate system (Baker et al., 2003; Conrad et al., 2008). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cocaine users exhibit a wide range of behavioral impairments accompanied by brain structural, neurochemical and functional abnormalities. Metabolic mapping studies in cocaine users and animal models have shown extensive functional alterations throughout the striatum, limbic system, and cortex. Few studies, however, have evaluated the persistence of these effects following cessation of cocaine availability. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to assess the functional effects of re-exposure to cocaine in nonhuman primates after the discontinuation of cocaine self-administration for 30 or 90 days, using the quantitative autoradiographic 2-[(14)C]deoxyglucose (2DG) method. Rhesus monkeys self-administered cocaine (fixed interval 3-min schedule, 30 infusions per session, 0.3 mg/kg/infusion) for 100 sessions followed by 30 (n=4) or 90 days (n=3) during which experimental sessions were not conducted. Food-reinforced control animals (n=5) underwent identical schedules of reinforcement. Animals were then re-exposed to cocaine or food for one final session and the 2DG method applied immediately after session completion. Compared to controls, re-exposure to cocaine after 30 or 90 day drug-free periods resulted in lower rates of glucose utilization in ventral and dorsal striatum, prefrontal and temporal cortex, limbic system, thalamus, and midbrain. These data demonstrate that vulnerability to the effects of cocaine persists for as long as 90 days after cessation of drug use. While there was some evidence for recovery (fewer brain areas were affected by cocaine re-exposure at 90 days as compared to 30 days), this was not uniform across regions, thus suggesting that recovery occurs at different rates in different brain systems.
"Converging evidence supports our hypothesis that cocaine use will show a negative effect on verbal memory task performance and underlying prefrontal activation among individuals with HIV. Multiple studies have demonstrated verbal memory deficits among cocaine users without HIV infection; however, semantic clustering has not been evaluated (Beatty et al. 1995; Berry et al. 1993; Fox et al. 2009; Manschreck et al. 1990; Mittenberg and Motta 1993). To our knowledge, no study has investigated the potential effects of cocaine use on the strategic component of verbal learning and underlying prefrontal activation patterns among HIV-infected individuals. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crack cocaine use is associated with impaired verbal memory in HIV-infected women more than uninfected women. To understand the neural basis for this impairment, this study examined the effects of crack cocaine use on activation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and strategic encoding during a verbal memory task in HIV-infected women. Three groups of HIV-infected women from the Chicago Consortium of the Women's Interagency HIV Study were compared: current users of crack cocaine (n = 10), former users of cocaine (n = 11), and women who had never used cocaine (n = 9). Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a verbal memory task and completed a neuropsychological test of verbal memory. On the neuropsychological test, current crack users performed significantly worse than other groups on semantic clustering, a measure of strategic encoding, p < 0.05. During encoding, activation in left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was lower in current and former cocaine users compared to never users. During recognition, activation in bilateral PFC, specifically left dorsal medial PFC and bilateral dorsolateral PFC, was lower in current and former users compared to women who had never used cocaine. Lower activation in left dorsolateral PFC was correlated with worse performance on the recognition task, p < 0.05. The verbal learning and memory deficits associated with cocaine use in women with HIV may be partially accounted for by alterations in ACC and PFC function.
Journal of NeuroVirology 04/2014; 20(4). DOI:10.1007/s13365-014-0250-x · 2.60 Impact Factor
"consumo crônico de cocaína, diversos autores sugerem que o uso abusivo desta substância e de seus derivados pode impactar negativamente o desempenho de diversas funções cognitivas (Berry et al., 1993; Rosselli, Ardila, Lubomski, Murray, & King, 2001; Severtson, Hedden, Martins, & Latimer, 2010). Por meio de estudos neuropsicológicos, recentemente foi evidenciado que a dependência de cocaína está associada a déficits cognitivos em funções específicas do funcionamento do indivíduo, sobretudo aquelas que permitem a adaptação ao ambiente e às suas distintas variações (Cunha, Nicastri, Gomes, Moino, & Peluso, 2004). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated how decision-making process occurs in crack dependents through the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). 30 participants were selected to crack dependent group GDC, and 15 non-users controls - GNU, from both sexes. We used the Cocaine Craving Questionnaire-Brief to assess the craving intensity. There were significant differences between groups both in the total-calculus score and in the blocks scores. The learning curve of the GDC was constant and negative during almost all game, except in the very ending when a suggestion of learning was observed. Regarding the task performance's classification, the analysis showed that a significant number of controls participants achieved a non-impaired performance, opposed to GDC performance. The differences between groups investigated in the IGT corroborate with a previous study finding, about a worse decision-making process associated with cocaine and crack addiction.
Estudos de Psicologia (Natal) 04/2012; 17(1):99-106. DOI:10.1590/S1413-294X2012000100012
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