TPA-induced differentiation of human rhabdomyosarcoma cells: expression of the myogenic regulatory factors.
ABSTRACT RD cells (a cell line derived from a human rhabdomyosarcoma) undergo a very limited myogenic differentiation despite the fact that they express several myogenic determination genes. Since we have previously shown (Aguanno et al., Cancer Res. 50, 3377, 1990) that the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induces myogenic differentiation in these cells, in this paper we investigate the mechanism by which TPA interferes with the expression and/or function of the myogenic determination genes. Northern blot analysis revealed that RD cells express the myf3 (the human analog of MyoD) and myf4 (the human analog of myogenin) transcripts, but not myf5 or myf6 transcripts. The myf3 and the myf4 gene products are correctly translated and accumulated in the nuclei as shown by immunofluorescence analysis. The tumor promoter (TPA) does not modify the pattern of expression of the myf factors while it induces the accumulation of muscle-specific transcripts, such as alpha-actin and fast myosin light chain 1, and their corresponding proteins. On the other hand, within 1 day of treatment, TPA inhibits the expression of the Id gene, which is a negative regulator of MyoD activity. However, while the TPA-induced inhibition of Id message accumulation correlates with differentiation, cell confluence also causes a reduction in Id message accumulation, without inducing differentiation. Under our experimental conditions, overexpression of any of the myf cDNAs in RD cells does induce spontaneous differentiation but enhances the effect of TPA treatment independently from the level of the expressed message. These data suggest that differentiation of RD cells is likely to depend upon the activity of complexes containing the various members of the MyoD family, which can be regulated by proteins affecting MyoD dimerization such as Id, but also by other mechanisms induced by TPA, such as phosphorylation.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Mariarosa Polimeni, May 28, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children and young adults, is characterized by a partially differentiated myogenic phenotype. We have previously shown that the blocking of tumor growth and resumption of differentiation can be achieved by re-expression of miR-206, a muscle-enriched microRNA missing in RMS. In this work, we focused on BAF53a, one of the genes downregulated in miR-206-expressing RMS cells, which codes for a subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Here we show that the BAF53a transcript is significantly higher in primary RMS tumors than in normal muscle, and is a direct target of miR-206. Sustained expression of BAF53a interferes with differentiation in myogenic cells, whereas its silencing in RMS cells increases expression of myogenic markers and inhibits proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. Accordingly, BAF53a silencing also impairs embryonal RMS and alveolar RMS tumor growth, inducing their morphological and biochemical differentiation. These results indicate that failure to downregulate the BAF53a subunit may contribute to the pathogenesis of RMS, and suggest that BAF53a may represent a novel therapeutic target for this tumor.Oncogene advance online publication, 3 June 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.188.Oncogene 06/2013; DOI:10.1038/onc.2013.188 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As a member of the TGF-β superfamily, myostatin is a specific negative regulator of skeletal muscle development. Loss of myostatin function in knock-out mice results in “double-muscle” phenotype observed in cattle breeds such as the Belgian Blue and the Piedmontese. In this chapter, we have included most recent observations on myostatin research, including the proteolytic processing of myostatin, its receptors, and the components in myostatin signaling pathway. In addition, we also discuss the role of myostatin in adipose tissue and glucose metabolism, and its relationship with rhabdomyosarcoma tumors.