Control of AP-1 activity by signal transduction cascades.

Department of Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093-0636.
Advances in second messenger and phosphoprotein research 02/1993; 28:255-60.
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: It has become increasingly appreciated that the long-term treatment of complex neuropsychiatric disorders like bipolar disorder (BD) involves the strategic regulation of signaling pathways and gene expression in critical neuronal circuits. Accumulating evidence from our laboratories and others has identified the family of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes as a shared target in the brain for the long-term action of both lithium and valproate (VPA) in the treatment of BD. In rats chronically treated with lithium at therapeutic levels, there is a reduction in the levels of frontal cortical and hippocampal membrane-associated PKC α and PKC ɛ. Using in vivo microdialysis, we have investigated the effects of chronic lithium on the intracellular cross-talk between PKC and the cyclic AMP (cAMP) generating system in vivo. We have found that activation of PKC produces an increase in dialysate cAMP levels in both prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, effects which are attenuated by chronic lithium administration. Lithium also regulates the activity of another major signaling pathway – the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway – in a PKC-dependent manner. Both Li and VPA, at therapeutically relevant concentrations, increase the DNA binding of activator protein 1 (AP-1) family of transcription factors in cultured cells in vitro, and in rat brain ex vivo. Furthermore, both agents increase the expression of an AP-1 driven reporter gene, as well as the expression of several endogenous genes known to be regulated by AP-1. Together, these results suggest that the PKC signaling pathway and PKC-mediated gene expression may be important mediators of lithium's long-term therapeutic effects in a disorder as complex as BD.
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the biology of the pharmacological stabilization of mood will undoubtedly serve to provide significant insight into the pathophysiology of manic-depressive illness (MDI). Accumulating evidence from our laboratories and those of other researchers has identified the family of protein kinase C isozymes as a shared target in the brain for the long-term action of both lithium and valproate. In rats chronically treated with lithium, there is a reduction in the hippocampus of the expression of two protein kinase isozymes, α and ε, as well as a reduction in the expression of a major PKC substrate, MARCKS, which has been implicated in long-term neuroplastic events in the developing and adult brain. In addition, we have been invesigating the down-stream impact of these mood stabilzizers on another kinase system, GSK-3β and on the AP-1 family of transcription factors. Further studies have generated promising preliminary data in support of the antimanic action of tamoxifen, and antiestrogen that is also a PKC inhibitor. Future studies must address the therapuetic relevance of these protein targets in the brain using innovative strategies in both animal and clinical investigations to ultimately create opportunities for the discovery of the next generations of mood stabilizers for the treatment of MDI.
    Biological Psychiatry 11/1999; 46(10):1328-1351. DOI:10.1016/S0006-3223(99)00235-8 · 9.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of hydrogen peroxide D-alpha-tocopherol and of D-beta-tocopherol on proliferation, protein kinase C and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation have been studied in vascular smooth muscle cells. Cell proliferation, when activated by foetal calf serum, was inhibited by D-alpha-tocopherol. Protein kinase C activity was stimulated by hydrogen peroxide in a manner similar to phorbol myristate acetate; in the latter case, but not in the former, D-alpha-tocopherol inhibited the reaction. Hydrogen peroxide prevented phorbol-myristate-acetate-stimulated AP-1 binding to DNA but stimulated it if protein kinase C was down-regulated or inhibited. D-alpha-Tocopherol promoted AP-1 activation in quiescent cells but prevented its activation by phorbol myristate acetate. None of the described effects of D-alpha-tocopherol were shared by D-beta-tocopherol, suggesting a non-antioxidant mechanism as the basis of its action. The data show that hydrogen peroxide and D-alpha-tocopherol affect more than one element in the cell signal-transduction cascade.
    European Journal of Biochemistry 01/1995; 226(2):393-402. DOI:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1994.tb20064.x · 3.58 Impact Factor