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    ABSTRACT: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) ist ein 12,5 kDa großes Protein, das als Homotrimer in fast allen Körpergeweben konstitutionell exprimiert wird und proinflammatorische wie wachstumsregulierende Eigenschaften aufweist. Die experimentelle Datenlage über die Wirkmechanismen von MIF zeigen, dass MIF sowohl extrazelluläre Wirkung als Zytokin/Chemokin wie auch eine intrazelluläre Wirkung als Regulator von Ubiquitylierung und proteasomaler Aktivität oder als Enzym mit Tautomerase-Aktivität besitzt. Für alle Mechanismen ist ein Einfluss von MIF auf Wachstumsregulation beschrieben. Die Evidenz für MIF als Tautomerase ist allerdings schlecht belegt und es wird diskutiert, ob dies ein Artefakt oder ein Relikt aus evolutionären Vorformen von MIF ist. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, über genetisch modifizierte Mäuse, die entweder eine komplette Deletion des MIF-Gens (MIF Knock-Out-Maus) oder eine Punktmutation mit Verlust der Enzymaktivität tragen, die funktionelle Rolle von MIF bei der Hauttumorgenese zu bestimmen und zu testen, ob die Tautomerase-Aktivität von MIF von funktioneller Relevanz bei der Tumorgenese ist. Unsere Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Abwesenheit von MIF in der murinen Haut während der chemischen One Stage-Karzinogenese mit Benzo[α]pyren zu verstärkter Tumorbildung führt. Der Verlust von Prolin 1 und damit der Tautomeraseaktivität alleine führt zu einem Phänotyp, welcher zwischen dem des Knock-Outs und dem des Wildtyps liegt. Dies weist daraufhin, dass Prolin 1 oder alternativ die Tautomeraseaktivität eine wichtige biologische Rolle für die Funktion von MIF bei der malignen Transformation von Keratinozyten spielt.
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of hydrogen peroxide D-alpha-tocopherol and of D-beta-tocopherol on proliferation, protein kinase C and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation have been studied in vascular smooth muscle cells. Cell proliferation, when activated by foetal calf serum, was inhibited by D-alpha-tocopherol. Protein kinase C activity was stimulated by hydrogen peroxide in a manner similar to phorbol myristate acetate; in the latter case, but not in the former, D-alpha-tocopherol inhibited the reaction. Hydrogen peroxide prevented phorbol-myristate-acetate-stimulated AP-1 binding to DNA but stimulated it if protein kinase C was down-regulated or inhibited. D-alpha-Tocopherol promoted AP-1 activation in quiescent cells but prevented its activation by phorbol myristate acetate. None of the described effects of D-alpha-tocopherol were shared by D-beta-tocopherol, suggesting a non-antioxidant mechanism as the basis of its action. The data show that hydrogen peroxide and D-alpha-tocopherol affect more than one element in the cell signal-transduction cascade.
    European Journal of Biochemistry 01/1995; 226(2):393-402. DOI:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1994.tb20064.x · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of the protooncogene c-fos is controlled by three main regulatory pathways involving kinase C, cAMP, and calcium. Kinase C mediates its effects via phosphorylation of serum response factor (SRF) which interacts with the serum response element (SRE); cAMP and calcium mediate their effects via phosphorylation of CREB (cAMP regulatory element binding protein) presumably by activation of a protein kinase A or calmodulin-regulated kinase. We have examined the function of these elements in Burkitt's lymphoma cells (Ramos and Daudi) as well as a T lymphocytic cell line (Jurkat). We have found that stimulation of any one of these pathways alone has little or no effect on c-fos induction. However, kinase C activation (PMA stimulation) combined with either cAMP (forskolin plus MIX) or calcium stimulation (ionophore) leads to greatly enhanced c-fos induction. By contrast, cAMP in the presence of calcium shows no synergy in c-fos induction. Okadaic acid augments PMA- as well as calcium-mediated activation of c-fos, and has little or no effect when combined with cAMP. The main difference between Ramos (B cells) and Jurkat (T cells) in the regulation of c-fos is that cAMP plus calcium is strongly synergistic in Jurkat and is without effect in Ramos. Analysis of AP-1 activity using gel mobility shift assays confirms that the requirements for synergy in c-fos mRNA induction are paralleled by requirements for synergy in induction of AP-1 activity. Signaling in B cells due to anti-Ig stimulation involves both kinase C activation and release of intracellular calcium, and results in c-fos mRNA induction. Our results indicate that synergy between the kinase C activation and calcium is needed for efficient c-fos induction since neither of these two alone induces c-fos well. That synergy of signaling pathways is relevant for the anti-Ig induction of c-fos is supported by the fact that cAMP-inducing agents and okadaic acid further enhance anti-Ig induction of c-fos. These results suggest that cell-specific patterns of synergy are an essential feature for c-fos induction and may be relevant for c-fos control through B and T cell antigen receptors.
    Immunobiology 09/1995; 193(5):465-85. DOI:10.1016/S0171-2985(11)80431-6 · 3.18 Impact Factor