Inter/intra-observer variability of carotid and femoral bifurcation intima-media thickness measurements.
ABSTRACT Arterial wall thickening may be quantitatively assessed by measuring the intima-media thickness (IMT) with high resolution ultrasound. Previous studies have shown a good inter/intraobserver variability of IMT measurements in the common carotid. In this study we evaluated the inter/intraobserver variability of IMT measurements in 10 randomly selected asymptomatic subjects (age 55.4 +/- 6). Two carotids and two femorals were studied in each subject. IMT for each patient was the average of five IMT measurements at the artery bifurcation. Three observers repeated the scanning and the measurements twice with no knowledge of the previous readings. The between observer coefficient of variation (CV) was 8.45%; the intraobserver CV (mean of carotids and femorals) varied from 4.4 to 5.1% for the three observers who measured IMT three times. The mean absolute difference between the first and the third measurement was 0.0738 mm. In conclusion IMT measurement variability is mostly due to differences between observers. The intraobserver variability is very small. IMT measurements at the carotid and femoral bifurcations have a low variability and are a good expression of atherosclerosis as they consider early lesions at the bifurcation level which may not be observed in the common carotid.
Article: Carotid and femoral ultrasound morphology screening and cardiovascular events in low risk subjects: a 10-year follow-up study (the CAFES-CAVE study(1)).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Subclinical arteriosclerotic lesions at the carotid and femoral bifurcations may be related to the occurrence of future cardiovascular events and of occult arteriosclerotic coronary disease. B-mode ultrasound of carotid and femoral arteriosclerotic bifurcation lesions may provide a simple screening method to select asymptomatic subjects at risk of future events. 13221 low-risk, healthy, asymptomatic individuals were included in a 10-year, prospective, follow-up based on carotid and femoral bifurcation morphology defined by B-mode ultrasound. Four classes were considered at inclusion (I: normal wall, II: wall thickening, III: non-stenosing plaques, IV: stenosing plaques). When 10000 subjects (75.6% of included subjects; 6055 males, 3945 females) completed the 10-year follow-up the study was concluded. At 10 years there were 10 events (out of 7989 subjects) in class I and 81 events in II (930 subjects; incidence=8.6%); 239 events were observed in class III (611 subjects; 39.28%) and 381 events (470 subjects; 81.06%) in IV; 61 deaths occurred in classes III+IV (1081 subjects) producing a death rate within these two classes of 5.5% (51 out of 61=81.5% in class IV). The increased event rates in classes III and IV were significant (log rank; P<0.02) in comparison with I and II. Carotid and femoral morphology identified 2011 subjects (20.1% of the population) in classes II,III,IV including 98.6% of cardiovascular events and deaths in the following 10 years. A higher (P<0.05) rate of progression in classes III and IV in comparison with I and II was also observed. The ultrasound carotid and femoral classification was useful in selecting subjects at very low risk of cardiovascular events (class I), those at limited risk (class II) and a group at moderate risk (class III). A subpopulation at high risk of cardiovascular events (IV) was identified.Atherosclerosis 06/2001; 156(2):379-87. · 3.79 Impact Factor
Article: Automated measurement of intima-media thickness of carotid arteries in ultrasonography by computer software.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Intima-media thickness (IMT) has been proposed to be a morphological criterion of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interobserver variability of manual and also of computer software measurements of IMT. High-resolution common carotid artery (CCA) images of 88 patients that have been obtained by a linear broadband L5-12 MHz transducer and archived in PACS were retrospectively evaluated. Two separate investigators, who were unaware of the former results, evaluated the same images by using computer software that had a dedicated tool for automatic measurement of IMT. The results of the investigators were compared. According to the two investigators who have performed manual measurements, mean values of IMT of right CCA were 0.6396 mm and 0.6356 mm; of the left CCA were 0.6662 mm and 0.6575 mm, respectively. The interobserver variability of measurements revealed the mean IMT as 0.6071 mm and 0.6048 mm for the right, 0.6216 mm and 0.6227 mm for the left CCA. Manual measurements of both investigators were found to be higher than the automatic measurements and the differences were statistically significant. Interobserver correlation of manual measurements was between 0.80-0.88 and of the automated measurements was between 0.93-0.98. Manual measurements reveal higher values than the automated measurements of IMT. The interobserver correlation of automated measurements is higher than manual measurements. The use of dedicated software may be proposed to reduce the measurement errors.Diagnostic and interventional radiology (Ankara, Turkey) 07/2005; 11(2):105-8. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Most estimates of the prevalence of peripheral atherosclerosis have been based on intermittent claudication or lower limb blood flow. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of underlying femoral plaque, and to determine its association with other cardiovascular disease and risk factors. Presence of plaque was identified using ultrasound in a random sample of men (n=417) and women (n=367) aged 56-77 years. Coexistent cardiovascular disease, exercise and smoking were determined by questionnaire, blood pressure was recorded, and serum cholesterol and plasma fibrinogen were determined. Of the 784 subjects that were scanned, 502 (64%) demonstrated atherosclerotic plaque. Disease prevalence increased significantly with age (P<0.0001), and was more common in men (67.1 vs. 59.4%, P<0.05). Subjects with femoral plaque had a significantly greater odds of previous ischaemic heart disease (OR 2. 2, 95% CI 1.3, 3.7) and angina (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.03, 2.7), but not of stroke or leg pain on exercise. Current and ex-smoking, raised serum total cholesterol and plasma fibrinogen levels, but not blood pressure, were associated with an increased risk of femoral plaque, independent of age and sex. Frequent exercise and a high HDL cholesterol were significantly associated with lower risk. In conclusion, therefore, atherosclerotic disease of the femoral artery affects almost two-thirds of the population in late middle age. It is associated with an increased prevalence of ischaemic heart disease and angina, but whether detecting at risk individuals using ultrasound offers advantages over simpler and less expensive risk factor scoring requires evaluation in trials.Atherosclerosis 09/2000; 152(1):167-74. · 3.79 Impact Factor