Sclerosing lipogranulomatosis: a case report of scrotal injection of automobile transmission fluid and literature review of subcutaneous injection of oils.
ABSTRACT For nearly a century, physicians and laypersons have attempted to repair, reconstruct, and embellish the human body in numerous ways by injecting various oils beneath the skin. Soon after Gersuny's first reported subcutaneous injection of oil, the local and systemic complications became apparent. Despite this, the practice of oil injections continues. "Medical grade" silicone injection was investigated in the 1960s to 1980s with varied success and complications. While few physicians practice oil injection therapy, some laypersons continue to subject themselves or their clients to the risk of the disfiguring complications of sclerosing lipogranulomata. Accidental high-pressure injection injury of liquids, so-called grease gun injuries, continues to provide a therapeutic challenge for the hand surgeon. Our case of a man who injected automobile transmission fluid into his scrotum illustrates the classical course and proper management of sclerosing lipogranulomata. A subcutaneous inflammatory and fibrosing reaction occurred with regional lymphadenopathy. The need for complete excision of all involved tissue to treat the condition successfully is illustrated. This case also illustrates the tendency of patients to conceal from their doctors the history of self-injection of foreign bodies. In cases of self-injection, psychological counseling might certainly be appropriate.
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ABSTRACT: Two polar phosphinoferrocene ligands, 1′-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene-1-carboxamide (1) and 1′-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene-1-carbohydrazide (2), were synthesized in good yields from 1′-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene-1-carboxylic acid (Hdpf) via the reactive benzotriazole derivative, 1-[1′-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene-1-carbonyl]-1H-1,2,3-benzotriazole (3). Alternatively, the hydrazide was prepared by the conventional reaction of methyl 1′-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene-1-carboxylate with hydrazine hydrate, and was further converted via standard condensation reactions to three phosphinoferrocene heterocycles, viz 2-[1′-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocen-1-yl]-1,3,4-oxadiazole (4), 1-[1′-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocen-1-carbonyl]-3,5-dimethyl-1,2-pyrazole (5), and 1-[1′-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene-1-carboxamido]-3,5-dimethylpyrrole (6). Compounds 1 and 2 react with [PdCl2(cod)] (cod = η2:η2-cycloocta-1,5-diene) to afford the respective bis-phosphine complexes trans-[PdCl2(L-κP)2] (7, L = 1; 8, L = 2). The dimeric precursor [(LNC)PdCl]2 (LNC = 2-[(dimethylamino-κN)methyl]phenyl-κC1) is cleaved with 1 to give the neutral phosphine complex [(LNC)PdCl(1-κP)] (9), which is readily transformed into a ionic bis-chelate complex [(LNC)PdCl(1-κ2O,P)][SbF6] (10) upon removal of the chloride ligand with Ag[SbF6]. Pyrazole 5 behaves similarly affording the related complexes [(LNC)PdCl(5-κP)] (12) and [(LNC)PdCl(5-κ2O,P)][SbF6] (13), in which the ferrocene ligand coordinates as a simple phosphine and an O,P-chelate respectively, while oxadiazole 4 affords the phosphine complex [(LNC)PdCl(4-κP)] (11) and a P,N-chelate [(LNC)PdCl(4-κ2N3,P)][SbF6] (14) under similar conditions. All compounds were characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic methods (multinuclear NMR, IR and MS). The solid-state structures of 1⋅½AcOEt, 2, 7⋅3CH3CN, 8⋅2CHCl3, 9⋅½CH2Cl2⋅0.375C6H14, 10, and 14 were determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography.Journal of Organometallic Chemistry - J ORGANOMET CHEM. 01/2011; 696(23):3727-3740.
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ABSTRACT: IntroductionThere is a dearth of studies to quantify the use of illicit fillers by transwomen. Case studies of illicit filler injections have pointed to an array of serious health complications, including death.AimsThe aims of this study were to determine the population prevalence and identify correlates of filler use among transwomen in San Francisco, CA.Methods An analysis of data collected in 2013 with a population-based sample of 233 transwomen recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). We used RDS weights to conduct bivariate and multivariate analyses of correlates of filler use.Main Outcome MeasuresMain outcome measures were an RDS-weighted population prevalence of filler use among transwomen and differences in demographic characteristics, transition-related care factors, and self-esteem related to appearance.ResultsWeighted filler prevalence among transwomen was 16.7%. Being a transwoman between 30 and 49 years of age, owning/renting or living with a partner/family/friend, having had and planning to have surgery in the future, and having used nonprescribed hormones were all significantly associated with filler use. HIV was not associated with filler use.Conclusions This study provides the first known estimate to date of the prevalence of filler use in a population-based sample of transwomen in San Francisco. Accessing illicit fillers may be the only choice available for many transwomen to make changes to their appearance due to the high cost of legal surgeries and other cosmetic procedures. An important next step in this research is to determine the overall prevalence and long-term consequences of filler use among transwomen, to explore how the use of fillers is protective to the safety and well-being of transwomen, and to find safe and affordable alternatives to this method that meet important gender-related appearance needs. Wilson E, Rapues J, Jin H, and Raymond HF. The use and correlates of illicit silicone or “fillers” in a population-based sample of transwomen, San Francisco, 2013. J Sex Med **;**:**–**.Journal of Sexual Medicine 06/2014; · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: O doping no mundo esportivo e na subcultura de atletas profissionais e recreacionais de culturismo já é muito conhecido e estudado pela comunidade acadêmica e científica. Porém, uma nova problemática, que definimos como doping cosmético, inseriu-se há algumas décadas no mundo todo, e tem crescido em importância no Brasil nos últimos anos. Trata-se de injeções sistemáticas de substâncias oleosas por via intramuscular, conhecidas como ADE (vitaminas lipossolúveis A, D e E), com intuito de aumentar volumetricamente o músculo per se, podendo levar a necroses, deformidades físicas ou até mesmo ao óbito. Apresentamos a história do uso cosmético dos preenchedores corporais e revisamos os possíveis efeitos deletérios e fatais que podem resultar do seu abuso, assim como os mecanismos envolvidos na evolução clínica da aplicação destas substâncias. Além disto, apresentamos métodos simples para observação potencial do uso. Pretendemos com este trabalho convocar a classe dos profissionais de saúde para que esta publique relatos de casos quando estes usuários forem atendidos devidos às complicações de tal uso, visto que os casos que até hoje apareceram são apenas o início de uma nova problemática de saúde pública que tende a aumentar consideravelmente.Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte 02/2011; 17(1):56-61. · 0.16 Impact Factor