Degradation Kinetics of Metronidazole in Solution
ABSTRACT The degradation kinetics of metronidazole in aqueous solutions of pH 3.1 to 9.9 under accelerated storage conditions were studied. The stability of metronidazole in solutions containing propylene glycol or polyethylene glycol 400 was also investigated. The reaction order for metronidazole in these aqueous and solvent systems followed pseudo-first-order degradation kinetics. The degradation rate of metronidazole was invariant under various total buffer concentrations at each specific pH within the investigated pH range. These results indicate that no general acid/base catalysis imposed by acetate, phosphate, and borate buffer species is responsible for the degradation of metronidazole. The catalytic rate constants for hydrogen ion, water, and hydroxyl ion for the degradation of metronidazole were 6.11 x 10(-5) M/s, 3.54 x 10(-8) L/s, and 4.10 x 10(-3) M/s, respectively. The pH-rate profile shows a pH-independent region of pH 3.9-6.6. Maximum stability of metronidazole was at pH 5.6 under zero total buffer species conditions. The ionic strength effect on metronidazole degradation in acetate and phosphate buffers followed the modified Debye-Huckel equation well. The Arrhenius plot showing the temperature dependence of metronidazole degradation indicates estimates of activation energy of 15.35 kcal/mol and a half-life of 963 h at room temperature in 0.1 M pH 3.1 acetate buffer solution (ionic strength = 0.5). Irradiation with UV light (254 nm) of the metronidazole solutions (pH 3.1 acetate buffer) accelerated degradation in comparison with light-protected samples. Incorporation of propylene glycol into the metronidazole solution at pH 3.1 increased stability; however, an adverse effect on the stability of metronidazole was seen when polyethylene glycol 400 solvent system was used.
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- "So far, the Pm incorporation by IEC-6 cells could explain the more prominent effect on the trophozoites adhesion of high concentration of Mz + suboptimal doses of Pm. On the other hand, Mz degradation rate is constant in different experimental conditions such as buffer and pH variation . Furthermore, it was demonstrated that intestinal epithelia of G. lamblia cronically infected animals secrete high rate of anions, mainly chloride salts . "
ABSTRACT: The Giardia lamblia life cycle is characterized by two phases during which two major cell differentiation processes take place: encystation and excystation. During encystation, the trophozoites transform into cysts, the resistance form. Once ingested by a susceptible host, the cysts are stimulated to excyst in the stomach, and the excysted trophozoites adhere to the epithelium of the upper small intestine. Our work analyses the effects of four benzimidazole derivatives during Giardia differentiation into cysts and evaluates the excystation efficiency of water resistant cysts. Albendazole (AB) showed the most significant results by inhibiting encystation about 30% and a decreasing rate of excystation efficiency. The ultrastructural organization of the cyst adhesive disk was notably affected by AB treatment. Although other benzimidazoles showed some effect on encystation, they were not able to inhibit the excystation process. It is known that the benzimidazoles affect the cytoskeleton of many organisms but how it interferes in Giardia differentiation processes is our main focus. The importance of studying Giardia's differentiation under drug action is reinforced by the following arguments: (1) Cysts eliminated by hosts undergoing treatment could still be potentially infective; (2) once the host has been treated, it would be desirable that the shedding of cysts into the environment is avoided; (3) the prevention of Giardia dissemination is a question of extreme importance mainly in underdeveloped countries, where poor sanitary conditions are related to high rates of giardiasis. This report concerns the importance of keeping the environment free from infective cysts and on Giardia's drug resistance and differentiating abilities.Parasitology Research 06/2009; 105(3):789-96. DOI:10.1007/s00436-009-1463-4 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In a citrate-borate-phosphate buffer, 5 mM tinidazole solutions exhibited maximum stability stability around pH 4.0-5.0. The hydrolysis of tinidazole was mostly a first-order reaction. At pH 10.0 and 60-80 degrees C, tinidazole had an activation energy of 122 kJ mol-1 for hydrolysis. It was postulated that tinidazole decomposes by different mechanisms under basic and neutral/acidic conditions.Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 07/1996; 14(8-10):1267-70. DOI:10.1016/S0731-7085(96)01768-2 · 2.98 Impact Factor