Degradation kinetics of metronidazole in solution.
ABSTRACT The degradation kinetics of metronidazole in aqueous solutions of pH 3.1 to 9.9 under accelerated storage conditions were studied. The stability of metronidazole in solutions containing propylene glycol or polyethylene glycol 400 was also investigated. The reaction order for metronidazole in these aqueous and solvent systems followed pseudo-first-order degradation kinetics. The degradation rate of metronidazole was invariant under various total buffer concentrations at each specific pH within the investigated pH range. These results indicate that no general acid/base catalysis imposed by acetate, phosphate, and borate buffer species is responsible for the degradation of metronidazole. The catalytic rate constants for hydrogen ion, water, and hydroxyl ion for the degradation of metronidazole were 6.11 x 10(-5) M/s, 3.54 x 10(-8) L/s, and 4.10 x 10(-3) M/s, respectively. The pH-rate profile shows a pH-independent region of pH 3.9-6.6. Maximum stability of metronidazole was at pH 5.6 under zero total buffer species conditions. The ionic strength effect on metronidazole degradation in acetate and phosphate buffers followed the modified Debye-Huckel equation well. The Arrhenius plot showing the temperature dependence of metronidazole degradation indicates estimates of activation energy of 15.35 kcal/mol and a half-life of 963 h at room temperature in 0.1 M pH 3.1 acetate buffer solution (ionic strength = 0.5). Irradiation with UV light (254 nm) of the metronidazole solutions (pH 3.1 acetate buffer) accelerated degradation in comparison with light-protected samples. Incorporation of propylene glycol into the metronidazole solution at pH 3.1 increased stability; however, an adverse effect on the stability of metronidazole was seen when polyethylene glycol 400 solvent system was used.
Conference Paper: Collision detection of manipulator based on adaptive control law[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this paper, we propose a collision detection method of a manipulator based on the nonlinear adaptive control law proposed by Slotine and Li (1988). The collision of a manipulator with its environment is detected by the difference between the actual input torques to the manipulator and the reference input torques calculated based on the manipulator dynamics. An adaptive control scheme is employed for the manipulator control and the parameter estimation of the manipulator. The reference input torques are calculated using the estimated manipulator parameters. The proposed collision detection scheme is applied to an industrial manipulator and the experimental results illustrate the validity of the proposed schemeAdvanced Intelligent Mechatronics, 2001. Proceedings. 2001 IEEE/ASME International Conference on; 02/2001
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ABSTRACT: Although omeprazole is an important component in anti-Helicobacter pylori therapeutic regimes using clarithromycin, amoxycillin and metronidazole, the mechanism by which it enhances antimicrobial action is unknown. One potential explanation for this effect is increased antibiotic chemical stability resulting from gastric pH changes induced by co-administration of omeprazole. The chemical stability of clarithromycin, amoxycillin and metronidazole was investigated in aqueous solutions and in human gastric juice collected before and after a 7-day course of omeprazole. Amoxycillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole were prepared in buffered aqueous solutions of pH 1.0 to 8.0 and in gastric juice of pH 2.0 and 7.0. The gastric juice samples were obtained from fasted H. pylori-negative volunteers before and after they had received a 7-day course of omeprazole. All the samples were incubated at 37 degrees C and analysed at intervals by HPLC. Amoxycillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole were stable in aqueous solutions of pH 4.0-7.0, pH 5.0-8.0 and pH 2.0-7.0, respectively. At pH 2.0, the degradation half-lives were 19.0 +/- 0.2 h, 1.3 +/- 0.05 h and 2200 +/- 1100 h, respectively. In gastric juice samples of pH 2.0, the degradation half-lives were 15.2 +/- 0.3 h, 1.0 +/- 0.04 h and > or = 800 h, respectively. The half-lives of the drugs in the gastric juice samples of pH 7.0 were all > 68 h. The co-administration of omeprazole with amoxycillin or clarithromycin is likely to increase the chemical stability of amoxycillin and clarithromycin in gastric juice. Clarithromycin degrades rapidly at normal gastric pH (1.0-2.0) but amoxycillin and metronidazole are sufficiently stable at this pH to maintain an antibacterial concentration in the stomach.Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 01/1997; 39(1):5-12. · 5.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The delivery of antimicrobial drugs to Helicobacter pylori within the stomach is poorly understood. The gastric environment represents a unique pharmacokinetic compartment, into which drug can be delivered directly following oral administration, or indirectly following intestinal absorption and transfer from the blood into the stomach across the gastric mucosa. Several methods have been used to study drug disposition across the gastric mucosa, including endoscopic biopsy studies, nasogastric intubation studies and animal models. Direct, or topical, delivery is limited by luminal drug degradation, drug formulation and the permeability of the mucus layer. Indirect, or systemic, delivery is limited by factors affecting the concentration gradient across the gastric mucosa and the permeability of the mucosa. These factors include intragastric pH, plasma protein binding, drug lipophilicity, the presence of active transport mechanisms, drugs that damage the gastric mucosa and inflammation secondary to H. pylori infection. Little is known about the last of these, and further research in this area should help in the rational approach to development of treatments against H. pylori.Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 01/1999; 12(12):1175-84. · 4.55 Impact Factor