The smp2 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows increased stability of the heterologous plasmid pSR1 and YRp plasmids. A DNA fragment bearing the SMP2 gene was cloned by its ability to complement the slow growth of the smp2 smp3 double mutant (smp3 is another mutation conferring increased stability of plasmid pSR1). The nucleotide sequence of SMP2 indicated that it encodes a highly charged 95 kDa protein. Disruption of the genomic SMP2 gene resulted in a respiration-deficient phenotype, although the cells retained mitochondrial DNA, and showed increased stability of pSR1 like the original smp2 mutant. The fact that the smp2 mutant is not always respiration deficient and shows increased pSR1 stability even in a rho0 strain lacking mitochondrial DNA suggested that the function of the Smp2 protein in plasmid maintenance is independent of respiration. The SMP2 locus was mapped at a site 71 cM from lys7 and 21 cM from ilv2/SMR1 on the right arm of chromosome XIII.
"In a fortunate twist of scientific fate, a preparation of the 91-kDa enzyme was recovered from frozen storage, analyzed for enzymatic activity, and sequenced by mass spectrometry , a much more sensitive method than Edman degradation. The deduced protein sequence matched that of the deduced product of the SMP2 gene, which had been implicated in plasmid maintenance and respiration . The molecular function of Smp2p, however, had yet to be established. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Yeast Pah1p phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP) catalyzes the penultimate step in the synthesis of triacylglycerol. PAP plays a crucial role in lipid homeostasis by controlling the relative proportions of its substrate phosphatidate and its product diacylglycerol. The cellular amounts of these lipid intermediates influence the synthesis of triacylglycerol and the pathways by which membrane phospholipids are synthesized. Physiological functions affected by PAP activity include phospholipid synthesis gene expression, nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum membrane growth, lipid droplet formation, and vacuole homeostasis and fusion. Yeast lacking Pah1p PAP activity are acutely sensitive to fatty acid-induced toxicity and exhibit respiratory deficiency. PAP is distinguished in its cellular location, catalytic mechanism, and physiological functions from Dpp1p and Lpp1p lipid phosphate phosphatases that utilize a variety of substrates that include phosphatidate. Phosphorylation/dephosphorylation is a major mechanism by which Pah1p PAP activity is regulated. Pah1p is phosphorylated by cytosolic-associated Pho85p-Pho80p, Cdc28p-cyclin B, and protein kinase A and is dephosphorylated by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated Nem1p-Spo7p phosphatase. The dephosphorylation of Pah1p stimulates PAP activity and facilitates the association with the membrane/phosphatidate allowing for its reaction and triacylglycerol synthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phospholipids and Phospholipid Metabolism.
"Interestingly, it was 1993 (the year Wen-I Wu placed the PA phosphatase sample in the freezer) when Irie et al. (1993) identified SMP2 (PAH1) as a gene involved in plasmid maintenance and respiration in S. cerevisiae. However, the molecular function of the SMP2 (PAH1) gene had not been established at that time. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphatidic acid phosphatase is a fat-regulating enzyme that plays a major role in controlling the balance of phosphatidic acid (substrate) and diacylglycerol (product), which are lipid precursors used for the synthesis of membrane phospholipids and triacylglycerol. Phosphatidic acid is also a signaling molecule that triggers phospholipid synthesis gene expression, membrane expansion, secretion, and endocytosis. While this important enzyme has been known for several decades, its gene was only identified recently from yeast. This discovery showed the importance of phosphatidic acid phosphatase in lipid metabolism in yeast as well as in higher eukaryotes including humans.
"Therefore, we conducted a screen for genes that, in high copy, can suppress the synthetic lethality of the nup84Dspo7D double knockout strain. This genetic approach identified SMP2 (Figure 1A), a gene originally isolated in a screen for mutants showing increased stability of heterologous plasmids (Irie et al, 1993). Smp2D deletion mutants are viable but grow slowly at 301C and exhibit temperature-sensitive growth at 371C (data not shown). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Remodelling of the nuclear membrane is essential for the dynamic changes of nuclear architecture at different stages of the cell cycle and during cell differentiation. The molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of nuclear membrane biogenesis is not known. Here we show that Smp2, the yeast homologue of mammalian lipin, is a key regulator of nuclear membrane growth during the cell cycle. Smp2 is phosphorylated by Cdc28/Cdk1 and dephosphorylated by a nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-localized CPD phosphatase complex consisting of Nem1 and Spo7. Loss of either SMP2 or its dephosphorylated form causes transcriptional upregulation of key enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis concurrent with a massive expansion of the nucleus. Conversely, constitutive dephosphorylation of Smp2 inhibits cell division. We show that Smp2 associates with the promoters of phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes in a Nem1-Spo7-dependent manner. Our data suggest that Smp2 is a critical factor in coordinating phospholipid biosynthesis at the nuclear/ER membrane with nuclear growth during the cell cycle.
The EMBO Journal 07/2005; 24(11):1931-41. DOI:10.1038/sj.emboj.7600672 · 10.43 Impact Factor
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